Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Part II Chapter 2. Thermophysical Properties


The thermal performance of fire resistive materials is controlled by their density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and any reactions that may occur during their exposure to a fire. Measuring these properties for heterogeneous FRMs over a range of temperatures from 23 ºC to 1000 ºC and higher is difficult and requires technical approaches beyond those conventionally employed in analytical labs. This chapter explores some of these new approaches, such as calculating thermal conductivity based on a detailed analysis of three-dimensional microstructure and measuring it using a simple steel slug calorimeter experimental setup in a high temperature furnace.

(1) Towards a Methology for the Characterization of Fire Resistive Materials with Respect to Thermal Performance Models (12 pages of text, 768.9K of figures)

(2) Microstructure and Materials Science of Fire Resistive Materials (10 pages of text, 451.4K of figures)

(3) A Numerical Model for Combustion of Bubbling Thermoplastic Materials in Microgravity (62 pages of text, 337.2K of figures)

(4) A Slug Calorimeter for Evaluating the Thermal Performance of Fire Resistive Materials (13 pages of text, 230.6K of figures)

(5) Measurement and Microstructure-Based Modeling of the Thermal Conductivity of Fire Resistive Materials (9 pages of text, 474K of figures)


(6) Combination of Transient Plane Source and Slug Calorimeter Measurements to Estimate the Thermal Properties of Fire Resistive Materials (9 pages of text, 113.5K of figures)

(7) Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity of Hydrated Calcium Silicate Board Materials (pdf document)

(8) Thermal Performance of Fire Resistive Materials I. Characterization with Respect to Thermal Performance Models (pdf document)

(9) Thermal Performance of Fire Resistive Materials II. A Multi-Layer One-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Fire Resistive Materials Protecting a Substrate (pdf document)

(10) Further Progress in the Development of a Slug Calorimeter for Evaluating the Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Fire Resistive Materials (pdf document)

(11) A Materials Science-Based Approach to Characterizing Fire Resistive Materials (pdf document)

(12) Thermal Performance of Fire Resistive Materials III. Fire Test on a Bare Steel Column (pdf document)

(13) Protecting Steel at High Temperatures (pdf document)

(14) Fire Resistive Materials: Thermal Barriers between Fires and Structures (pdf document)

(15) Determining Thermal Properties of Gypsum Board at Elevated Temperatures (pdf document)


Go to Part II Chapter 3. Adhesion Properties


Go back to Part II Chapter 1. Microstructure


(1) D.P. Bentz, K.R. Prasad, J.C. Yang, Fire and Materials 30 (4) 311-321 (2006) . 
(2) D.P. Bentz, P.M. Halleck, M.N. Clarke, E.J. Garboczi, and A.S. Grader, Proceedings of the ASCE/SEI Spring 2005 Structures Congress 
(3) K.M. Butler, National Institute of Standards and Technology Internal Report 6894, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce (2002). 
(4) D.P. Bentz, D.R. Flynn, J.H. Kim and R.R. Zarr, Fire and Materials 30 (4) 257-270 (2006). 
(5) D.P. Bentz, Thermal Conductivity 28/Thermal Expansion 16, DesTech Publications, Lancaster, PA, 161-170, 2006.
(6) D.P. Bentz, ASTM Journal of Testing and Evaluation , 35 (3) 240-244 (2007).
(7) C.T. Do, D.P. Bentz, and P.E. Stutzman, Journal of Building Physics , 31 (1) 55-67 (2007).
(8) D.P. Bentz and K.R. Prasad, NISTIR 7401, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 2007.
(9) K.R. Prasad and D.P. Bentz, NISTIR 7482, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 2008.
(10) D.P. Bentz, P.S. Gaal, and D. Stroe Gaal, Thermal Conductivity 29/Thermal Expansion 17, DesTech Publications, Lancaster, PA, 402-411, 2008.
(11) D.P. Bentz, C.C. White, K.R. Prasad, D.R. Flynn, D.L. Hunston, and K.T. Tan, Journal of ASTM International, 6 (5), 2009.
(12) D.P. Bentz, L.M. Hanssen, and B. Wilthan, NISTIR 7576, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 2009.
(13) D.P. Bentz and C.W. White, Modern Steel Construction, 49-52, October 2009.
(14) D.P. Bentz, Thermal Conductivity 30/Thermal Expansion 18, DesTech Publications, Lancaster, PA, 108-119, 2010.
(15) S.-H. Park, S.L. Manzello, D.P. Bentz, and T. Mizukami, Fire and Materials, 34, 237-250, 2010, DOI:10.1002/fam.1017.



Created July 20, 2017, Updated November 15, 2019