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High-Speed & Dual-Spectrum Videos of Machining Processes

This page is maintained by Eric Whitenton. I update this page from time to time, so come visit again! This is a sampling of movie files showing material flow and temperature distribution during orthogonal machining. The videos were obtained using either a high-speed visible light camera or a high-speed dual-spectrum camera. The dual-spectrum camera was developed to improve scientific understanding of the complex phenomena that occur during manufacturing processes. Results of the NIST research are used by industry and academia to improve simulations and tooling for challenging manufacturing processes, enabling cost-effective manufacture of complex products with demanding specifications.

Several publications discussing the challanges of imaging machining are available. Other publications are listed with relevant movie files.


 Click on the pictures below to download zipped movie files! 

(Once you have downloaded a file, unzip it and play the unzipped movie file.)

Transcript Movie and Short Description Technical Details File Size Date Added
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. typical machining experiment
A typical machining experiment.
Steel workpiece, 500 m/min surface speed.

Hand held camcorder movie with sound.
12 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. chip gets progressively thinner
What will happen as this steel chip gets progressively thinner?
Steel workpiece, 295 m/min surface speed.

Visible light movie is 6 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 10 mm wide.
31 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. chips reenter cutting zone
Chips reenter the cutting zone, impacting tool life.
Steel workpiece, 500 m/min surface speed.

Visible light movie is 30 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 20 mm wide.
25 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. tear-out at corner
Workpiece tear-out at a corner, affecting sharpness of the corner.
Steel workpiece, 300 m/min surface speed.

Visible light movie is 60 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 1 mm wide.
20 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. Built Up Edge
The workpiece material can adhere to the cutting tool. The adhered material is called a built up edge, or BUE. If the BUE becomes thick, the workpiece can be cut by the BUE and not the cutting tool. This may adversely affect surface finish or tolerance of the machined part. This movie shows a BUE form, cut the workpiece material, and then come off the tool without a trace. A machinist looking at the cutting tool after a cut might never know that a BUE had interfered with the cutting process.
Steel workpiece, 200 m/min surface speed.

Elapsed time is shown in milliseconds (ms). The visible light movie on the left is 5 000 frames per second with a field of view of about 23 mm wide. The visible light movie on the right is 5 000 frames per second for some portions of the movie and 180 000 frames per second for other portions. The field of view is about 0.7 mm wide.
21 MB June
28
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. Folding chip and varying chip thickness
Folding chip and varying chip thickness affect cutting forces.
Brass workpiece, 25 m/min surface speed.

Visible light movie is 15 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 2 mm wide.

Plot shows fluctuating cutting forces.
22 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. workpiece graps chip
High spot on the workpiece grabs the chip and causes the chip to be pressed against the workpiece.
Copper workpiece, 300 m/min surface speed.

Visible light movie is 30 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 2 mm wide.
2 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. showing sub-surface damage
Deformation of a scratch indicates developement of subsurface residual strain in the workpiece.
Titanium workpiece, 60 m/min surface speed.

Visible light movie is 180 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 1 mm wide.

For more information, see
24 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. tracking strain
Image correlation techniques enable estimation of displacement vectors and strain.
Titanium workpiece, 60 m/min surface speed.

Visible light movie is 180 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 1 mm wide.

For more information, see
19 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. segmentation frequencies
Displacement vectors can be used to determine variations in chip segmentation frequencies.
Steel workpiece, 250 m/min surface speed.

Visible light movie is 60 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 1 mm wide.

For more information, see
23 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. tracking cumulative strain
Using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) to track material deformation. The colored pattern in the movie, which deforms as the metal deforms, was generated by the DIC software to help the viewer visualize cumulative strain.
Inconel 718 workpiece, 55 m/min surface speed.
Visible light movie is 125 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 0.8 mm wide.

Unfortunately, the shear zone is so thin that the strain measured there is not as accurate as desired. There are other possible techniques currently under investigation, such as monitoring the polarization state of emitted thermal spectrum light emitted by the shear zone.

For more information, see
5 MB Apr
14
2011
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. exothermic oxidation
Exothermic oxidation of the chip. The delay in the exothermic reaction causes the chip to glow brighter after it has left the cutting zone than it did while in the cutting zone. This increase in brightness is far more than could be explained by a change in emissivity alone.
Steel workpiece, 1200 m/min surface speed.

Camcorder movie on the left is 60 frames per second and triggers a strobe to help freeze motion.

Visible light movie on the right is 300 frames per second. Field of view is about 30 mm wide. Even though it is a visible light image, heat causes the chip to glow enough to be seen by the camera.

Visible light movie in the center is the same as the movie on right, except that it updates the screen only when the image is sufficiently bright. In the beginning, this middle movie only updates when the strobe flashes. Towards the end, the chip glows so brightly that the image updates every frame.

The bottom of the frame shows cutting forces and a once per revolution indicator.

For more information on strobing, see
27 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. locating edge of moving tool
Visible spectrum images are used to precisely locate the edge of the (moving) tool in the thermal spectrum images. Knowledge of this location is important for the correct estimation of tool temperatures, a major factor for the analysis of tool wear.
Steel workpiece, 600 m/min surface speed.

All three movies have the same frame rate and the same field of view of about 1 mm high. The movie on the left is a thermal movie displayed in color. The movie in the center is a visible light movie. The movie on the right is a thermal movie displayed in gray scale. A red line is drawn at the precise location of the edge of the tool, as determined by the visible light movie.

For more information, see
9 MB Mar
19
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. tool fails
Thermocouples embedded in the tool weaken the tool and cause tool failure during heavy cutting.
Steel workpiece, 300 m/min surface speed.

Thermal movie on the left is 300 frames per second. Field of view is about 1 mm wide.

Visible light movie in the center is 10 000 frames per second. Field of view is about 2 mm wide.

Camcorder movie on the right is 60 frames per second.

Plot on the bottom shows embedded thermocouple temperatures and a once per revolution resolver signal.

For more information, see
22 MB May
13
2010
Descriptive text for the visually impaired. tool temperature
Thermocouples embedded in the tool used during light cutting verify that temperatures measured on the surface of the tool with the thermal camera are indicative of internal temperatures.
Steel workpiece, 300 m/min surface speed.

Thermal movie on the left is 100 frames per second. Field of view is about 1 mm wide.

Visible light movie in the center is 100 frames per second. Field of view is about 2 mm wide.

Camcorder movie on the right is 60 frames per second.

Plot on bottom shows embedded thermocouple temperatures and a once per revolution resolver signal.

For more information, see
17 MB May
13
2010

Disclaimer: This document is an official contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States. The National Institute of Standards and Technology does not recommend or endorse commercial equipment or materials, nor does it imply that the equipment or materials shown are necessarily the best available for the purpose. NIST assumes no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic. We would appreciate acknowledgement if these movies are used.