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1. Interactions of Higher Order Tip Effects in CD-AFM Linewidth Metrology
Published: 4/30/2015
Authors: Ronald G Dixson, Boon Ping Ng, Xavier Bonnaud, Ndubuisi George Orji
Abstract: A major challenge in critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) width metrology is accounting for the effects of the tip on the apparent features in an image. The overall effect of the tip is to broaden the apparent width of lines and narrow ...

2. Technique for AFM Tip Characterization
Published: 9/15/2014
Authors: Ndubuisi George Orji, Ronald G Dixson, Hiroshi Itoh, Chumei Wang
Abstract: In atomic force microscopy (AFM) metrology, the scanning tip is a major source of uncertainty. Images taken with an AFM show an apparent broadening of feature dimensions due to the finite size of the tip. An AFM image is a combination of the feature ...

3. Effects of Lateral Tip Control in CD-AFM Width Metrology
Published: 8/12/2014
Authors: Ronald G Dixson, Boon Ping Ng, Ndubuisi George Orji
Abstract: Critical dimension atomic force microscopes (CD-AFMs) use flared tips and two-dimensional sensing and position control of the tip-sample interaction to enable scanning of features with near-vertical or reentrant sidewalls. Sidewall sensing usually in ...

4. Resolving three-dimensional shape of sub-50 nm wide lines with nanometer-scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes
Published: 7/29/2014
Authors: Ravikiran Attota, Ronald G Dixson
Abstract: We experimentally demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3-D) shape variations of nanometer-scale objects can be resolved and measured with sub-nanometer scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes by analyzing 3-D optical data using th ...

5. 3-D Optical Metrology of Finite sub-20nm Dense Arrays With sub-nanometer Parametric Uncertainties
Published: 6/23/2013
Authors: Jing Qin, Hui Zhou, Bryan M Barnes, Ronald G Dixson, Richard M Silver
Abstract: A new approach that involves parametric fitting of 3-D scattered field with electromagnetic simulation, Fourier domain normalization, and uncertainties analysis is presented to rigorously analyze 3-D through-focus optical images of targets that scatt ...

6. Distributed Force Probe Bending Model of CD-AFM Bias
Published: 4/1/2013
Authors: Vladimir A. Ukraintsev, Ndubuisi George Orji, Theodore Vincent Vorburger, Ronald G Dixson, Joseph Fu, Richard M Silver
Abstract: Critical Dimension AFM (CD-AFM) is a widely used reference metrology technique. To characterize modern semiconductor devices, small and flexible probes, often 15 nm to 20 nm in diameter, are used. Recent studies have reported uncontrolled and signif ...

7. 3-D Optical Metrology of Finite sub-20 nm Dense Arrays using Fourier Domain Normalization
Published: 3/25/2013
Authors: Jing Qin, Hui Zhou, Bryan M Barnes, Ronald G Dixson, Richard M Silver
Abstract: Reduced target dimensions requiring improved resolution and sensitivity have driven the need to use and analyze the phase and scattered frequency information available when using image-based scatterometry systems. One such system is scatterfield micr ...

Published: 3/25/2013
Authors: Ronald G Dixson, Craig Dyer McGray, Boon Ping Ng, Ndubuisi George Orji, Jon C Geist
Abstract: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been developing methods and standards to enable the traceable calibration of critical dimension atomic force microscopy (CD AFM). This technique involves flared tips and two-dimensional s ...

9. Effect of the Spherical Indenter Tip Assumption on the Initial Plastic Yield Stress
Published: 10/17/2012
Authors: Li Ma, Lyle E Levine, Ronald G Dixson, Douglas T Smith, David Bahr
Abstract: Nanoindentation is widely used to explore the mechanical properties of small volumes of materials. For crystalline materials, there is a growing experimental and theoretical interest in pop-in events, which are sudden displacement-burst excursions d ...

10. Multiple-order Imaging for Optical Critical Dimension Metrology using Microscope Characterization
Published: 10/11/2012
Authors: Jing Qin, Hui Zhou, Bryan M Barnes, Francois R. Goasmat, Ronald G Dixson, Richard M Silver
Abstract: There has been much recent work in developing advanced optical metrology applications that use imaging optics for optical critical dimension (OCD) measurements, defect detection, and for potential use with in-die metrology applications. We have previ ...

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