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"Election Administration in the United States"1934, by Joseph P. Harris, Ph.D.


 

The National Institute of Standards and Technology is pleased to make available for download the landmark book on election administration, Election Administration in the United States, by Joseph P. Harris, Ph.D. 

This book is reprinted with permission of the Brookings Institution Press, Copyright 1934, All Rights Reserved. NIST wishes to thank the Brookings Institution for making this out-of-print book available for download from this site.


The book can be downloaded as one large (130 MB) file or by individual chapters, as detailed below.

 

I. INTRODUCTION: THE PROBLEM OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF ELECTIONS;HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The Problem
Brief History of Election Administration       
In the colonies       
After the Revolution       
Recent tendencies

II. A MODEL ELECTION ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

Specifications for the System
General Changes in the Election Laws
A Model Election Administration Code

III. OVERHEAD ORGANIZATION

State Control
County and City Officers
Boards of Election        
Organization       
Qualifications       
Selection       
Term and salary       
Powers

IV. THE RANK AND FILE

Office Employees
Precinct Officers       
 Number and compensation       
Qualifications       
Selection        
Discipline 
Summary and Conclusions

V. BALLOTS  

History of the Australian Ballot
Form of the Ballot        
Variations from the usual types of ballots       
Party emblems       
Use of party, residence, occupation, etc., on the ballot
Placing Names of Candidates on the Ballot
Provisions for Candidates not Named on the Ballot
The Order of Offices, Parties, and Candidates
Instructions to Voters
Sample Ballots and Ballot Advertising
Printing
Presidential Electors and the Ballot

VI. THE CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS 

The Call of the Election
Frequency of Elections 
Election Precincts
Polling Places
Delivery of Election Equipment and Supplies
Hours for Voting
Organization of the Precinct Election Board
Identification of the Voter
Poll Lists
Handling the Ballots
Assistance to Voters
Challenges
Watchers and Challengers
The Count

VII. VOTING MACHINES  

Extent of their Use
Legislation
Operation       
Defects of manual counting of paper ballots       
Frauds       
Cost of machines and economies effected       
Facility of voting       
Quick returns       
Recounts       
Secrecy       
Election officers       
Proportional representation       
Breakdown of machines       
Liability of abandonment
Summary

VIII. ABSENT VOTING; MAIL VOTING; THE CANVASS; RECOUNTS 

Absent Voting       
Scope of legislation       
Procedure       
Summary
Mail Voting
Canvass of Elections
Recounts

IX. ELECTION FRAUDS

Philadelphia
Chicago
Pittsburgh
Cleveland
Election Frauds Elsewhere
Types of Voting Frauds       
Registration frauds       
Repeating       
Ballot-box stuffing       
Chain ballots       
Assistance to voters       
Intimidation and violence       
Altering ballots       
Substitution of ballots       
False count and false returns       
Altering returns
Factors and Conditions Responsible for Frauds
Prevention of Frauds

X. ELECTION COSTS 

An Excessive Burden
Election Costs in Large Cities
Personnel Costs
Regular Employees
Temporary Employees
Precinct Officers
Operating Expenses       
Ballots       
Supplies       
Printing       
Rental       
Repairs       
Cartage       
Storage       
Advertising
Financial Control
The Reduction of Costs

XI. STATISTICS

INDEX