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1. Experimental Measurement of the Effect of Copper Through-Silicon Via Diameter on Stress Buildup Using Synchrotron-based X-ray Source
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 6/20/2015
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Lyle E Levine, Yaw S Obeng, Ruqing Xu
Abstract: In this work, the effect of Cu through-silicon via (TSV) diameter on stress buildup in Cu TSVs was experimentally determined using synchrotron-based X-ray microdiffraction technique. With the aid of atomic force microscopy (AFM), Cu protrusion was al ...

2. Influence of the central mode and soft phonon on the microwave dielectric loss near the strain-induced ferroelectric phase transitions in Sr^dn+1^uTi^dn^uO^d3n+1^u*
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 11/12/2014
Authors: V. Goian, S. Kamba, D Nuzhnyy, Nathan Orloff, T. Birol, C.-H Lee, D. G. Schlom, James C Booth
Abstract: Recently, Lee et al.^u[1]^dused~1% tensile strain to induce a ferroelectic instability in thin films of Sr^dn+1^uTi^dn^uO^d3n+1^u (n=1-6) phases. They showed that the Curie temperature T^dc^u gradually increased with n, reaching 180 K for Sr7Ti6O19 ...

3. Non-destructive Measurement of the Residual Stresses in Copper Through-Silicon Vias using Synchrotron Based Micro-beam X-ray Diffraction
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 7/1/2014
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Lyle E Levine, Yaw S Obeng, Klaus Hummler, Ruqing Xu
Abstract: In this study, we report a new method for achieving depth resolved determination of the full stress tensor in buried Cu through-silicon vias (TSVs), using synchrotron based X-ray micro-diffraction technique. Two adjacent Cu TSVs were analyzed; on ...

4. Defect and Microstructural Evolution in Thermally Cycled Cu Through-Silicon Vias
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 6/14/2014
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, James Marro, Yaw S Obeng, Kathleen Richardson
Abstract: In this study, the effect of thermal cycling on defect generation, microstructure, and the RF signal integrity of blind Cu through-silicon via (TSV) were investigated. Three different thermal cycling profiles were used; each differentiated by their ...

5. X-Ray Micro-Beam Diffraction Measurement of the Effect of Thermal Cycling on Stress in Cu TSV: A Comparative Study
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 5/26/2014
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Lyle E Levine, Yaw S Obeng, Klaus Hummler, Ruqing Xu
Abstract: Microelectronic devices are subjected to constantly varying temperature conditions during their operational lifetime, which can lead to their failure. In this study, we examined the impact of thermal cycling on the evolution of stresses in Cu TSVs us ...

6. Metrology Needs for TSV Fabrication
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 3/4/2014
Authors: Victor Vartanian, Richard A Allen, Larry Smith, Klaus Hummler, Steve Olson, Brian Sapp
Abstract: This paper focuses on the metrology needs and challenges of through silicon via (TSV) fabrication, consisting of TSV etch, liner, barrier, and seed (L/B/S) depositions, copper plating, and copper CMP. These TSVs, with typical dimensions within a f ...

7. Detection of 3D Interconnect Bonding Voids by IR Microscopy
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 2/20/2014
Authors: Jonny H?glund, Zoltan Kiss, Gyorgy Nadudvari , Zsolt Kovacs, Szabolcs Velkei, Moore Chris, Victor Vartanian, Richard A Allen
Abstract: There are a number of factors driving 3D integration including reduced power consumption, RC delay, and form factor as well as increased bandwidth. However, before these advantages can be realized, various technical and cost hurdles must be overcom ...

8. Dielectrophoretic Trapping of P19 Cells on Indium Tin Oxide based Microelectrode Arrays
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 11/8/2013
Authors: Aveek Gangopadhyay, Saugandhika Minnikanti, Darwin R Reyes-Hernandez, Mulpuri V. Rao, Nathalia Peixoto
Abstract: A microfabricated device comprised of a microelectrode array (MEA) and a microfluidic channel is presented here for the purpose of trapping cells using positive dielectrophoresis (DEP). Transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes are patterned in a ...

9. Analysis of Implanted Silicon Dopant Profiles
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 9/1/2013
Authors: B. P. Geiser, Eric B Steel, Karen T Henry, D. Olson, T.J. Prosa
Abstract: Atom probe tomography implant dose measurements are reported for National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2134 (As implant). Efforts were taken to manufacture specimens with limited variation in size and shape to mi ...

10. Accelerated Stress Test Assessment of Through-Silicon Vias Using RF Signals
Topic: Microelectronics
Published: 6/1/2013
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Pavel Kabos, Jan Obrzut, Klaus Hummler, Yaw S Obeng
Abstract: In this work, radio frequency (RF) signal is demonstrated as an effective metrology tool for the assessment of the effect of thermal cycling on the reliability of through-silicon via (TSV) stacked dies. It was found that RF signal integrity of TSV da ...

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