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1. 3D Image Correction of Tilted Sample Through Coordinate Transformation
Published: 1/1/2007
Authors: Wei Chu, Joseph Fu, Ronald G Dixson, Theodore Vincent Vorburger
Abstract: In scanned probe measurements of micrometer- or nanometer-scale lines, it is nearly impossible to maintain the sample in a perfectly level position, and even a small amount of tilt angle can contribute to the accuracy of the result of measurand such ...

2. A moving window correlation method to reduce the distortion of SPM images
Published: 8/20/2009
Authors: Wei Chu, Joseph Fu, Ronald G Dixson, Ndubuisi George Orji, Theodore Vincent Vorburger
Abstract: Many scanning probe microscopes (SPMs), such as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), use piezoelectric actuators operating in open loop for generating the scans of the surfaces. However, nonlinearities mainly cau ...

3. An Image Stitching Method to Eliminate the Distortion of the Sidewall in Linewidth Measurement
Published: 5/1/2004
Authors: Xuezeng Zhao, Joseph Fu, Wei Chu, C V Nguyen, Theodore Vincent Vorburger
Abstract: Nano-scale linewidth measurements are performed in semiconductor manufacturing, the data storage industry, and micro-mechanical engineering. It is well known that the interaction of probe and sample affects the measurement accuracy of linewidth measu ...

4. An Improved Digital Image Correlation Method Applied to Scanning Probe Microscope Images
Published: 10/1/2009
Authors: Wei Chu, Joseph Fu, Theodore Vincent Vorburger
Abstract: Digital image correlation (DIC) is a method for measuring the surface displacements and displacement gradients in materials under deformation. During the calculation, the traditional DIC method directly uses the intensity values of compared images an ...

5. An Iterative Image Registration Algorithm by Optimizing Similarity Measurement
Published: 1/1/2010
Authors: Wei Chu, Li Ma, Jun-Feng Song, Theodore Vincent Vorburger

6. Applications of Cross-Correlation Functions
Published: 4/14/2010
Authors: Theodore Vincent Vorburger, Jun-Feng Song, Wei Chu, Li Ma, Xiaoyu A Zheng, Thomas B Renegar, Son H Bui
Abstract: We describe several examples where we use cross-correlation functions to quantify the similarity of 2D surface profiles or of 3D surface topography images. The applications have included 1) the manufacture of Standard Reference Material (SRM) bullet ...

7. Automatic Identification of Bullet Signatures Based on Consecutive Matching Striae (CMS) Criteria
Published: 9/10/2013
Authors: Wei Chu, Robert Meryln Thompson, Jun-Feng Song, Theodore Vincent Vorburger
Abstract: The consecutive matching striae (CMS) numeric criteria for firearm and toolmark identifications have been widely accepted by forensic examiners, although there have been questions concerning its observer subjectivity and limited statistical support. ...

8. Development of Ballistics Identification ‹ From Image Comparison to Topography Measurement in Surface Metrology-
Published: 3/22/2012
Authors: Jun-Feng Song, Theodore Vincent Vorburger, Robert Meryln Thompson, Thomas B Renegar, Xiaoyu A Zheng, James H Yen, Richard M Silver, Wei Chu
Abstract: Fired bullets and ejected cartridge cases have unique ballistics signatures left by the firearm. By analyzing the ballistics signatures, forensic examiners can trace these bullets and cartridge cases to the firearm used in a crime scene. Current au ...

9. Fire Cartridge Case Identifications Using Optical Images and Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method
Series: Journal of Research (NIST JRES)
Report Number: 119.023
Published: 11/6/2014
Authors: Mingsi Tong, Jun-Feng Song, Wei Chu, Robert Meryln Thompson
Abstract: The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Institute (NIST). The CMC method is based on correlation of pairs of small correlation cells instead of correlation on the entire images. Four ide ...

10. Influence of room temperature control system on AFM imaging
Published: 10/1/2009
Authors: Joseph Fu, Wei Chu, Theodore Vincent Vorburger
Abstract: As technology progresses, the control of environment for experiments is also getting more sophisticated; such as the control of lab temperature and vibration. Temperature controlled within ± 0.25° C for a general purpose lab is common place. We illus ...

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