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|Author(s):||Mauro Zammarano; Rick D. Davis; Yeon S. Kim; Richard H. Harris Jr.; Marc R. Nyden; Jeffrey W. Gilman; Nasir M. Uddin;|
|Title:||Nanoparticles in Flame-Retardant Coatings for Flexible Polyurethane Foams: Effects on Flammability and Nanoparticle Release|
|Published:||May 15, 2013|
|Abstract:||Nanoparticles can effectively reduce polymer flammability; however, the impact of nanoparticles on environmental and health safety is still unclear. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to develop and investigate the effect of nanoparticle-rich-coatings on the flammability of polyurethane foam, and (2) to establish suitable techniques for measuring the release of the nanoparticles from the foam under simulated end-use stresses. The nanoparticle-containing coatings were prepared by Layer-by-Layer self-assembly and included sodium montmorillonite, multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes or carbon nanofibers. The carbon-nanofiber-coated foams showed the highest reduction in flammability (40 % reduction in peak of heat release rate with 1.6 % by mass of nanoparticle) and out-performed 17 commercial flame retardants commonly used in polyurethane foams (31 % reduction with 20 % additive in the best formulation). The nanoparticle release was investigated by exposing the coated foams to simulated chewing and wear-and-tear. The average release values ranged between 0.0003 % and 0.50 % by mass, as referred to the total nanoparticle content. The amount of nanoparticles released by simulated chewing was an order of magnitude greater than from wear-and-tear. Clay yielded lower release values than carbon nanofibers and multi-walled nanotubes.|
|Proceedings:||5th International Seminar on Modern Polymeric Materials for Environmental Applications ‹ MPM2013|
|Pages:||pp. 93 - 102|
|Dates:||May 15-17, 2013|
|Keywords:||Nanoparticle, foam, layer-by-layer, flammability|
|Research Areas:||Fire Research, Polymers/Polymeric Composites, Fire Materials Research, Materials Science, Nanotechnology|
|PDF version:||Click here to retrieve PDF version of paper (527KB)|