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Publication Citation: Theory Building: An Examination of the Pre-evacuation Period of the 2001 WTC Disaster

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Author(s): Erica D. Kuligowski;
Title: Theory Building: An Examination of the Pre-evacuation Period of the 2001 WTC Disaster
Published: September 18, 2012
Abstract: This paper presents a portion of the author‰s PhD dissertation involving a qualitative study of occupant behavior in response to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. Through analyses of transcripts from 245 face-to-face interviews with survivors from both WTC towers, collected by Project HEED, the author investigated the pre-evacuation period in what became the largest full-scale building evacuation in history. The objectives of this study were to understand the types of actions performed before occupants began evacuation via stairs and elevators and why those actions were taken to improve techniques used and to address inadequacies in evacuation modeling tools. On 9/11, occupants consistently developed new social norms and lines of action based upon the meanings that occupants assigned to the situation, including perceptions of risk, familiarity with the building and others in the building, and responsibility for others. These meanings were dependent upon the receipt of environmental cues as well as on pre-existing norms, experiences, training, and social roles.
Conference: 2012 Human Behaviour in Fire Symposium
Pages: 13 pp.
Location: Cambridge, -1
Dates: September 18-21, 2012
Keywords: behavioral modeling, conceptual modeling, human behavior in fire, World Trade Center
Research Areas: Building and Fire Research