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Publication Citation: An algorithm for finding clusters with a known distribution and its application to photon-number resolution using a superconducting transition-edge sensor

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Author(s): Zachary H. Levine; Thomas Gerrits; Alan L. Migdall; Daniel V. Samarov; Brice R. Calkins; Adriana E. Lita; Sae Woo Nam;
Title: An algorithm for finding clusters with a known distribution and its application to photon-number resolution using a superconducting transition-edge sensor
Published: July 20, 2012
Abstract: Improving photon-number resolution of single-photon sensitive detectors is important for many applications, as is extending the range of such detectors. Here we seek improved resolution for a particular Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) through better processing of the TES output waveforms. With that aim, two algorithms to extract number resolution from TES output waveforms are compared. The comparison is done by processing waveform data sets from a TES illuminated at nine illumination levels by a pulsed laser at 1550 nm. The algorithms are used to sort the individual output waveforms and then create clusters associated with individual photon numbers. The first uses a dot product with the waveform mean (for each illumination level), while the second uses $K$-means clustering modified to include knowledge of the Poisson distribution. The first algorithm is shown to distinguish adjacent peaks associated with photon numbers up to 19, whereas the second algorithm distinguishes photon numbers up to 23, using the same data.
Citation: Journal of the Optical Society of America B-Optical Physics
Volume: 29
Issue: 8
Pages: pp. 2066 - 2073
Keywords: Poisson distribution ; k-means clustering ; TES detector ; Poisson-influenced K-means algorithm (PIKA)
Research Areas: Optical Metrology, Optics
PDF version: PDF Document Click here to retrieve PDF version of paper (402KB)