The focus of this project is to develop measurement science and standards to enable building systems to interact with a future “smart grid,” which supports the national goal to modernize the electricity generation, transmission, and distribution system by making it more robust and reliable. Commercial and residential buildings consume 72% of all electricity. As building-scale renewable energy systems become more common, buildings will increasingly become generators of electricity as well as consumers. Future electric vehicles will be charged through plug-in connections managed by home and building automation systems. Utility-scale renewable generation systems will require responsive loads to match the fluctuations caused by varying wind and solar conditions. Consumers will need access to their own energy consumption data to make informed decisions about their energy consuming habits. For all these reasons, integration of building systems with the grid will be a critical part of the stability and success of the smart grid.
Objective: To develop the measurement science for industry standards that will enable interconnection of home and building automation and control systems with a future “smart” utility grid, provide consumers with energy usage information, and support industry efforts to develop the needed standards by 2015.
What is the new technical idea? The new technical idea is to integrate homes and buildings into the next generation “smart grid” by developing the technical basis for standards governing real-time pricing, distributed energy resources (DER) (including demand response (DR), distributed generation, and energy storage), electric vehicle charging control, and consumer access to energy usage information. This project will develop information models, data representation methods, and communication protocols to enable these activities, working with industry stakeholders to analyze use cases and develop approaches that can be adopted through consensus standards. In addition, this project will perform research into novel facility control methodologies based on DER availability, electricity price, and local markets, with testing in a simulation environment, in the NIST Virtual Cybernetic Building Testbed (VCBT), and in the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERF).What is the research plan? This project addresses communications, interoperability, and control approaches for residential, commercial, institutional and industrial buildings via three research components: (1) information model development to enable data exchange within building systems and between buildings and the smart grid, (2) building controls research for optimal response to dynamic pricing and demand management signals in commercial and residential buildings, and (3) simulation and testing in the Virtual Cybernetic Building Testbed and Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility to demonstrate success, and provide feedback to (1) and (2).
The information modeling effort focuses on priority facility interface standards needs identified in the NIST Framework. These include price, demand response, energy usage and load, and communications for distributed energy resources (generation and storage) including load forecasting. This work will result in
Information modeling standards:
Protocol implementation standards:
The building controls research component will develop load and generation prediction algorithms, and DR optimization strategies for residential and commercial building interaction with the smart grid. These algorithms will take into account occupancy, weather, electricity price and DR signals, availability of renewable energy (including storage), and user inputs.
In parallel with the other activities, the simulation and testing component will utilize unique NIST laboratory facilities (the VCBT and NZERTF) to test and demonstrate success of the information models and control strategies. These test and demonstration activities will also provide feedback to guide extensions and enhancements to the other research components.
EL will also support the broader NIST smart grid program, providing technical direction and leadership within the SGIP on issues related to building interactions with the smart grid, access to energy usage information, and electric vehicle charging controls. EL will also provide leadership within the ASHRAE BACnet, ASHRAE Facility Smart Grid Information Model, OASIS Energy Interoperation, and IEC PC 118 committees to advance these standards.
 NIST Special Publication 1108, NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, January 2010.
“Distributed Demand Response with Energy Storage”, Mau, S.C., Lau, R., Holmberg, D.G., Bushby, S.T., Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, Tainan, Taiwan, Nov 5-8, 2012.
First Public Review of ASHRAE Facility Smart Grid Information Model (June 2012)
Publication of the NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0 (January 2012)
“Demand Response and Standards: Enabling a New Role for Buildings in the Smart Grid,” Holmberg, D.G, ASHRAE Journal, Nov. 2011.
“Strategy and Modeling for Building DR Optimization,” Lau, R., Ayyorgun, S., Mau, S.C., Eswaran, S., Misra, A., Bushby, S.T., Holmberg, D.G., IEEE SmartGridComm 2011, Smart/Virtual Metering, Demand Response, Dynamic Pricing, Oct 17-20, 2011.
Publication of SAE 2847_1 Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid (2012)
Publication of SGIP Vehicle-to-Grid standards roadmap identifying interoperability gaps (2012)
Publication of SAE J2836_1 Use cases for Communication Between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid (2011)
Publication of OASIS Energy Market Information Exchange standard (2011)
Publication of OASIS Energy Interoperation standard (2011)
Publication of NAESB REQ.18/WEQ.19 Energy Usage Information standard (2011)
Establishment of ASHRAE/NEMA 201 Facility Smart Grid Information Model committee (2010)
More than 13 million consumers have been given access to their electricity usage information through the Green Button Download My Data program and utilities have made commitments that will increase this number to 31 million in 2013. The Green Button Initiative is an industry-led effort that responds to a White House call-to-action to give customers access to their electricity usage data from their utility in a consumer- and computer-friendly electronic format, based on the recently published NAESB ESPI standard. The Green Button Initiative is described in further detail at http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/greenbutton.cfm and is supported by NIST and its Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), and many other groups.
The Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) Alliance was established and is piloting OpenADR 2.0 in summer 2012. OpenADR 2.0 is a profile on the OASIS Energy Interoperation standard and used for automated DR.
Standards and Codes: Project results provide input for the development and revision of several national and international standards including:
Start Date:October 1, 2011
Lead Organizational Unit:el
Related Programs and Projects:
Commissioning Building Systems for Improved Energy Performance
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8631