National Institute of Standards and Technology Act
SECTION 1. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES (15 U.S.C. 271)1
(a) The Congress finds and declares the following:
(1) The future well-being of the United States economy depends on a strong manufacturing base and requires continual improvements in manufacturing technology, quality control, and techniques for ensuring product reliability and cost-effectiveness.
(2) Precise measurements, calibrations and standards help United States industry and manufacturing concerns compete strongly in world markets.
(3) Improvements in manufacturing and product technology depend on fundamental scientific and engineering research to develop
(A) the precise and accurate measurement methods and measurement standards needed to improve quality and reliability, and
(B) new technological processes by which such improved methods may be used in practice to improve manufacturing and to assist industry to transfer important laboratory discoveries into commercial products.
(4) Scientific progress, public safety, and product compatibility and standardization also depend on the development of precise measurement methods, standards, and related basic technologies.
(5) The National Bureau of Standards since its establishment has served as the Federal focal point in developing basic measurement standards and related technologies, has taken a lead role in stimulating cooperative work among private industrial organizations in efforts to surmount technological hurdles, and otherwise has been responsible for assisting in the improvement of industrial technology.
(6) The Federal Government should maintain a national science, engineering, and technology laboratory which provides measurement methods, standards, and associated technologies and which aids United States companies in using new technologies to improve products and manufacturing processes.
(7) Such national laboratory also should serve industry, trade associations, State technology programs, labor organizations, professional societies, and educational institutions by disseminating information on new basic technologies including automated manufacturing processes.
(b) It is the purpose of this Act-
(1) to rename the National Bureau of Standards as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and to modernize and restructure that agency to augment its unique ability to enhance the competitiveness of American industry while maintaining its traditional function as lead national laboratory for providing the measurements, calibrations, and quality assurance techniques which underpin United States commerce, technological progress, improved product reliability and manufacturing processes, and public safety;
(2) to assist private sector initiatives to capitalize on advanced technology;
(3) to advance, through cooperative efforts among industries, universities, and government laboratories, promising research and development projects, which can be optimized by the private sector for commercial and industrial applications; and
(4) to promote shared risks, accelerated development, and pooling of skills which will be necessary to strengthen America's manufacturing industries.
SECTION 2. ESTABLISHMENT, FUNCTIONS, AND ACTIVITIES (15 U.S.C. 272)2
(a) There is established within the Department of Commerce a science, engineering, technology, and measurement laboratory to be known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (hereafter in this Act referred to as the 'Institute').
(b) The Secretary of Commerce (hereafter in this Act referred to as the 'Secretary') acting through the Director of the Institute (hereafter in this Act referred to as the 'Director') is authorized to take all actions necessary and appropriate to accomplish the purposes of this Act, including the following functions of the Institute--
(1) to assist industry in the development of technology and procedures needed to improve quality, to modernize manufacturing processes, to ensure product reliability, manufacturability, functionality, and cost-effectiveness, and to facilitate the more rapid commercialization, especially by small- and medium-sized companies throughout the United States, of products based on new scientific discoveries in fields such as automation, electronics, advanced materials, biotechnology, and optical technologies;
(2) to develop, maintain, and retain custody of the national standards of measurement, and provide the means and methods for making measurements consistent with those standards;3
(3) to compare standards used in scientific investigations, engineering, manufacturing, commerce, industry, and educational institutions with the standards adopted or recognized by the Federal Government and to coordinate the use by Federal agencies of private sector standards, emphasizing where possible the use of standards developed by private, consensus organizations;4
(4) to enter into contracts, including cooperative research and development arrangements and grants and cooperative agreements, in furtherance of the purposes of this Act;
(5) to provide United States industry, Government, and educational institutions with a national clearinghouse of current information, techniques, and advice for the achievement of higher quality and productivity based on current domestic and international scientific and technical development;
(6) to assist industry in the development of measurements, measurement methods, and basic measurement technology;
(7) to determine, compile, evaluate, and disseminate physical constants and the properties and performance of conventional and advanced materials when they are important to science, engineering, manufacturing, education, commerce, and industry and are not available with sufficient accuracy elsewhere;
(8) to develop a fundamental basis and methods for testing materials, mechanisms, structures, equipment, and systems, including those used by the Federal Government;
(9) to assure the compatibility of United States national measurement standards with those of other nations;
(10) to cooperate with other departments and agencies of the Federal Government, with industry, with State and local governments, with the governments of other nations and international organizations, and with private organizations in establishing standard practices, codes, specifications, and voluntary consensus standards;
(11) to advise government and industry on scientific and technical problems;
(12) to invent, develop, and (when appropriate) promote transfer to the private sector of measurement devices to serve special national needs; and
(13) to coordinate Federal, State, and local technical standards activities and conformity assessment activities, with private sector technical standards activities and conformity assessment activities, with the goal of eliminating unnecessary duplication and complexity in the development and promulgation of conformity assessment requirements and measures.5
(c) In carrying out the functions specified in subsection (b), the Secretary, acting through the Director may, among other things-
(1) construct physical standards;
(2) test, calibrate, and certify standards and standard measuring apparatus;
(3) study and improve instruments, measurement methods, and industrial process control any quality assurance techniques;
(4) cooperate with the States in securing uniformity in weights and measures laws and methods of inspection;
(5) cooperate with foreign scientific and technical institutions to understand technological developments in other countries better;
(6) prepare, certify, and sell standard reference materials for use in ensuring the accuracy of chemical analyses and measurements of physical and other properties of materials;
(7) in furtherance of the purposes of this Act, accept research associates, cash donations, and donated equipment from industry, and also engage with industry in research to develop new basic and generic technologies for traditional and new products and for improved production and manufacturing;
(8) study and develop fundamental scientific understanding and improved measurement, analysis, synthesis, processing, and fabrication methods for chemical substances and compounds, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and all traditional and advanced materials, including processes of degradation;
(9) investigate ionizing and nonionizing radiation and radioactive substances, their uses, and ways to protect people, structures, and equipment from their harmful effects;
(10) determine the atomic and molecular structure of matter, through analysis of spectra and other methods, to provide a basis for predicting chemical and physical structures and reactions and for designing new materials and chemical substances, including biologically active macromolecules;
(11) perform research on electromagnetic waves, including optical waves, and on properties and performance of electrical, electronic, and electromagnetic devices and systems and their essential materials, develop and maintain related standards, and disseminate standard signals through broadcast and other means;
(12) develop and test standard interfaces, communication protocols, and data structures for computer and related telecommunications systems;
(13) study computer systems (as that term is defined in section 20(d) of this Act) and their use to control machinery and processes;6
(14) perform research to develop standards and test methods to advance the effective use of computers and related systems and to protect the information stored, processed, and transmitted by such systems and to provide advice in support of policies affecting Federal computer and related telecommunications systems;
(15) determine properties of building materials and structural elements, and encourage their standardization and most effective use, including investigation of fire-resisting properties of building materials and conditions under which they may be most efficiently used, and the standardization of types of appliances for fire prevention;
(16) undertake such research in engineering, pure and applied mathematics, statistics, computer science, materials science, and the physical sciences as may be necessary to carry out and support the functions specified in this section;
(17) compile, evaluate, publish, and otherwise disseminate general specific and technical data resulting from the performance of the functions specified in this section or from other sources when such data are important to science, engineering, or industry, or to the general public, and are not available elsewhere;
(18) collect, create, analyze, and maintain specimens of scientific value;
(19) operate national user facilities;
(20) evaluate promising inventions and other novel technical concepts submitted by inventors and small companies and work with other Federal agencies, States, and localities to provide appropriate technical assistance and support for those inventions which are found in the evaluation process to have commercial promise;
(21) demonstrate the results of the Institute's activities by exhibits or other methods of technology transfer, including the use of scientific or technical personnel of the Institute for part-time or intermittent teaching and training activities at educational institutions of higher learning as part of and incidental to their official duties; and7
(22) undertake such other activities similar to those specified in the subsection as the Director determines appropriate.
(d) In carrying out the extramural funding programs of the Institute, including the programs established under sections 25, 26, and 28 of this Act, the Secretary may retain reasonable amounts of any funds appropriated pursuant to authorizations for these programs in order to pay for the Institute's management of these programs.8
SECTION 3. FUNCTIONS; FOR WHOM EXERCISED (15 U.S.C. 273)
The Institute9 is authorized to exercise its functions for the Government of the United States and for international organizations of which the United States is a member; for governments of friendly countries; for any State or municipal government within the United States; or for any scientific society, educational institution, firm, corporation, or individual within the United States or friendly countries engaged in manufacturing or other pursuits requiring the use of standards or standard measuring instruments: Provided, That the exercise of these functions for international organizations, governments of friendly countries and scientific societies, educational institutions, firms, corporations, or individuals therein shall be in coordination with other agencies of the United States Government, in particular the Department of State in respect to foreign entities.10 All requests for the services of the Institute shall be made in accordance with the rules and regulations herein established.
SECTION 4. SALARIES OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES (REPEALED)11
SECTION 5. DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE (15 U.S.C. 274)12
The Director13 shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Director shall report directly to the Secretary and shall have the general supervision of the Institute, its equipment, and the exercise of its functions. The Director shall make an annual report to the Secretary of Commerce. The Director may issue, when necessary, bulletins for public distribution, containing such information as may be of value to the public or facilitate the exercise of the functions of the Institute. The Director shall be compensated at the rate in effect for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code. Until such time as the Director assumes office under this section, the most recent Director of the National Bureau of Standards shall serve as Director.
SECTION 6. APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES (15 U.S.C. 275)14
That the officers and employees provided for by this Act, except the director, shall be appointed by the Secretary of Commerce at such time as their respective services may become necessary.
SECTION 7. SERVICE CHARGES (15 U.S.C. 275a)15
The Secretary shall charge for services performed under the authority of Section 3 of this Act, except in cases where he determines that the interest of the Government would be best served by waiving the charge. Such charges may be based upon fixed prices or costs. The appropriation or fund bearing the cost of the services may be reimbursed, or the Secretary may require advance payment subject to such adjustment on completion of the work as may be agreed upon.
SECTION 8. OWNERSHIP OF FACILITIES (15 U.S.C. 276)16
In the absence of specific agreement to the contrary, additional facilities, including equipment, purchased pursuant to the performance of services authorized by section 3 of this Act shall become the property of the Department of Commerce.
SECTION 9. REGULATIONS (15 U.S.C. 277)17
The Secretary of Commerce shall, from time to time, make regulations regarding the payment of fees, the limits of tolerance to be attained in standards submitted for verification, the sealing of standards, the disbursement and receipt of moneys, and such other matters as he may deem necessary for carrying this Act into effect.
SECTION 10. VISITING COMMITTEE ON ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY (15 U.S.C. 278)18
(a) There is established within the Institute a Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology (hereafter in this Act referred to as the "Committee"). The Committee shall consist of 15 members19 appointed by the Director, at least 1019 of whom shall be from United States industry. The Director shall appoint as original members of the Committee any final members of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Visiting Committee who wish to serve such capacity. In addition to any powers and functions otherwise granted to it by this Act, the Committee shall review and make recommendations regarding general policy for the Institute, its organization, its budget, and its programs within the framework of applicable national policies as set forth by the President and the Congress.
(b) The persons appointed as members of the Committee-
(1) shall be eminent in fields such as business, research, new product development, engineering, labor, education, management consulting, environment, and international relations;
(2) shall be selected solely on the basis of established records of distinguished service;
(3) shall not be employees of the Federal Government; and
(4) shall be so selected as to provide representation of a cross-section of the traditional and emerging United States industries.
The Director is requested, in making appointments of persons as members of the Committee, to give due consideration to any recommendations which may be submitted to the Director by the National Academies, professional societies, business associations, labor associations, and other appropriate organizations.
(c) (1) The term of office of each member of the Committee, other than the original members, shall be 3 years; except that any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of such term. Any person who has completed two consecutive full terms of service on the Committee shall thereafter be ineligible for appointment during the one-year period following the expiration of the second such term.
(2) The original members of the Committee shall be elected to three classes of three members each; one class shall have a term of one year, one a term of two years, and the other a term of three years.
(d) The Committee shall meet at least twice each year65 at the call of the Chairman of whenever one-third of the members so request in writing. A majority of the members of the Committee not having a conflict of interest in the matter being considered by the Committee shall constitute a quorum. Each member shall be given appropriate notice, whenever possible, not less than 15 days prior to any meeting, of the call of such meeting.
(e) The Committee shall have an executive committee, and may delegate to it or to the Secretary such of the powers and functions granted to the Committee by this Act as it deems appropriate. The Committee is authorized to appoint from among its members such other committees as it deems necessary, and to assign to committees so appointed such survey and advisory functions as the Committee deems appropriate to assist it in exercising its powers and functions under this Act.
(f) The election of the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Committee shall take place at each annual meeting occurring in an even-numbered year. The Vice Chairman shall perform the duties of the Chairman in his absence. In case a vacancy occurs in the chairmanship or vice chairmanship, the Committee shall elect a member to fill such vacancy.
(g) The Committee may, with the concurrence of a majority of its members, permit the appointment of a staff consisting of not more than four professional staff members and such clerical staff members as may be necessary. Such staff shall be appointed by the Director, after consultation with the Chairman of the Committee, and assigned at the direction of the Committee. The professional member of such staff may be appointed without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service and the provisions of chapter 51 of title 5 of such Code relating to classification, and compensated at a rate not exceeding the appropriate rate provided for individuals in grade GS-18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5 of such Code, as may be necessary to provide for the performance of such duties as may be prescribed by the Committee in connection with the exercise of its powers and functions under this Act.
(h) (1) The Committee shall render an annual report to the Secretary for submission to the Congress not later than 30 days after the submittal to Congress of the President's annual budget request in each year.64 Such report shall deal essentially, though not necessarily exclusively, with policy issues or matters which affect the Institute, including the Program established under section 28 of this Act, or with which the Committee in its official role as the private sector policy advisor of the Institute is concerned. Each such report shall identify areas of research and research techniques of the Institute of potential importance to the long-term competitiveness of United States industry, in which the Institute possesses special competence, which could be used to assist United States enterprises and United States industrial joint research and development ventures. Such report also shall comment on the programmatic planning document and updates thereto submitted to Congress by the Director under subsections (c) and (d) of section 23.64
(2) The Committee shall render to the Secretary and the Congress such additional reports on specific policy matters as it deems appropriate.
SECTION 11. GIFTS AND BEQUESTS (REPEALED)20
SECTION 12. WORKING CAPITAL FUND (15 U.S.C. 278b)21
(a) The Institute22 is authorized to utilize in the performance of its functions the Working Capital Fund established by the Act of June 29, 1950 (64 Stat. 275).23
(b) The working capital of the fund shall be available for obligation and payment for any activities authorized by this Act, and for any activities for which provision is made in the appropriations which reimburse the fund.
(c) In the performance of authorized activities, the Working Capital Fund shall be available and may be reimbursed for expenses of hire of automobile, hire of consultants, and travel to meetings, to the extent that such expenses are authorized for the appropriations of the Department of Commerce.
(d) The fund may be credited with advances and reimbursements, including receipts from non-Federal sources, for services performed under the authority of section 3 of this Act.
(e) As used in this Act, the term "cost" shall be construed to include directly related expenses and appropriate charges for indirect and administrative expenses.
(f) The amount of any earned net income resulting from the operation of the fund at the close of each fiscal year shall be paid into the general fund of the Treasury: Provided, That such earned net income may be applied to restore any prior impairment of the fund, and to ensure the availability of working capital necessary to replace equipment and inventories.24
SECTION 13. ACQUISITION OF LAND FOR FIELD SITES (15 U.S.C. 278c)25
To the extent that funds are specifically appropriated therefor, the Secretary of Commerce is authorized to acquire land for such field sites as are necessary for the proper and efficient conduct of the activities authorized herein.
SECTION 14. CONSTRUCTION AND IMPROVEMENT OF BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES (15 U.S.C. 278d)26
(a) IN GENERAL.-Within the limits of funds which are appropriated for the Institute27, the Secretary of Commerce is authorized to undertake such construction of buildings and other facilities and to make such improvements to existing buildings, grounds, and other facilities occupied or used by the Institute27 as are necessary for the proper and efficient conduct of the activities authorized herein.
(b) RETENTION OF FEES.-The Director is authorized to retain all building use and depreciation surcharge fees collected pursuant to OMB Circular A-25. Such fees shall be collected and credited to the Construction of Research Facilities Appropriation Account for use in maintenance and repair of the Institute's existing facilities.70
SECTION 15. FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES (15 U.S.C. 278e)28
In the performance of the functions of the Institute the Secretary of Commerce is authorized to undertake the following activities:
(a) the purchase, repair, and cleaning of uniforms for guards;
(b) the care, maintenance, protection, repair, and alteration of Institute buildings and other plant facilities, equipment, and property.29
(c) the rental of field sites and laboratory, office, and warehouse space;
(d) the purchase of reprints from technical journals or other periodicals and the payment of page charges for the publication of research papers and reports in such journals;
(e) the furnishing of food and shelter without repayment therefore to employees of the Government at Arctic and Antarctic stations;
(f) for the conduct of observations on radio propagation phenomena in the Arctic or Antarctic regions, the appointment of employees at base rates established by the Secretary of Commerce which shall not exceed such maximum rates as may be specified from time to time in the appropriation concerned, and without regard to the civil service and classification laws and sections 911-913, 921, and 922 of Title 5;
(g) the erection on leased property of specialized facilities working and living quarters when the Secretary of Commerce determines that this will best serve the interests of the Government; and
(h) the provision of transportation services for employees of the Institute between the facilities of the Institute and nearby public transportation, notwithstanding section 1344 of title 31.30
SECTION 16. FIRE RESEARCH (15 U.S.C. 278f)31
(a) There is hereby established within the Department of Commerce a Fire Research Center which shall have the mission of performing and supporting research on all aspects of fire with the aim of providing scientific and technical knowledge applicable to the prevention and control of fires. The content and priorities of the research program shall be determined in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration32. In implementing this section, the Secretary is authorized to conduct, directly or through contracts or grants, a fire research program, including-
(1) basic and applied fire research for the purpose of arriving at an understanding of the fundamental processes underlying all aspects of fire. Such research shall include scientific investigations of-
(A) the physics and chemistry of combustion processes;
(B) the dynamics of flame ignition, flame spread, and flame extinguishment;
(C) the composition of combustion products developed by various sources and under various environmental conditions;
(D) the early stages of fires in buildings and other structures, structural subsystems and structural components in all other types of fires, including, but not limited to, forest fires, brush fires, fires underground, oil blowout fires, and waterborne fires, with the aim of improving early detection capability;
(E) the behavior of fires involving all types of buildings and other structures and their contents (including mobile homes and highrise buildings, construction materials, floor and wall coverings, coatings, furnishings and other combustible materials), and all other types of fires, including forest fires, brush fires, fires underground, oil blowout fires, and waterborne fires;
(F) the unique fire hazards arising from the transportation and use, in industrial and professional practices, of combustible gases, fluids, and materials;
(G) design concepts for providing increased fire safety consistent with habitability, comfort, and human impact in buildings and other structures;
(H) such other aspects of the fire process as may be deemed useful in pursuing the objectives of the fire research program; and
(I) methods, procedures, and equipment for arson prevention, detection and investigation;33
(2) research into the biological, physiological, and psychological factors affecting human victims of fire, and the performance of individual members of fire services, including-
(A) the biological and physiological effects of toxic substances encountered in fires;
(B) the trauma, cardiac conditions, and other hazards resulting from exposure to fire;
(C) the development of simple and reliable tests for determining the cause of death from fires;
(D) improved methods of providing first aid to victims of fires;
(E) psychological and motivational characteristics of persons who engage in arson, and the prediction and cure of such behavior;
(F) the conditions of stress encountered by firefighters, the effects of such stress, and the alleviation and reduction of such conditions;
(G) such other biological, psychological, and physiological effects of fire as have significance for purposes of control or prevention of fires; and
(3) operation tests, demonstration projects, and fire investigations in support of the activities set forth in this section.
The Secretary shall insure that the results and advances arising from the work of the research program are disseminated broadly. He shall encourage the incorporation, to the extent applicable and practicable, of such results and advances in building codes, fire codes, and other relevant codes, test methods, fire service operations and training, and standards. The Secretary is authorized to encourage and assist in the development and adoption of uniform codes, test methods, and standards aimed at reducing fire losses and costs of fire protection.
(b) For purposes of this section, there are authorized to be appropriated an amount not to exceed $5,650,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980, which amount includes-
(1) $525,000 for programs which are recommended in the report submitted to the Congress by the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration pursuant to section 2220(b)(1) of this title; and
(2) $119,000 for adjustments required by law in salaries, pay, retirement, and employee benefits.34
SECTION 17. INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES (15 U.S.C. 278g)35
(a) The Secretary is authorized, notwithstanding any other provision of law, to expend such sums, within the limit of appropriated funds, as the Secretary may deem desirable, through the grant of fellowships or any other form of financial assistance, to defray the expenses of foreign nationals not in service to the Government of the United States while they are performing scientific or engineering work at the Institute or participating in the exchange of scientific or technical information at the Institute.
(b) The Congress consents to the acceptance by employees of the National Institute of Standards and Technology of fellowships, lectureships, or other positions for the performance of scientific or engineering activities or for the exchange of scientific or technical information, offered by a foreign government, and to the acceptance and retention by an employee of the Institute of any form of financial or other assistance provided by a foreign government as compensation for or as a means of defraying expenses associated with the performance of scientific or engineering activities or the exchange of scientific or technical information, in any case where the acceptance of such fellowship, lectureship, or position or the acceptance and retention of such assistance is determined by the Secretary to be appropriate and consistent with the interests of the United States. For the purposes of this subsection, the definitions appearing in section 7342(a) of title 5 of the United States Code apply. Civil actions may be brought and penalties assessed against any employee who knowingly accepts and retains assistance from a foreign government not consented to by this subsection in the same manner as is prescribed by section 7342(h) of title 5 of the United States Code.
(c) Provisions of law prohibiting the use of any part of any appropriation for the payment of compensation to any employee or officer of the Government of the United States who is not a citizen of the United States shall not apply to the payment of compensation to scientific or engineering personnel of the Institute.
(d) For any scientific and engineering disciplines for which there is a shortage of suitably qualified and available United States citizens and nationals, the Secretary is authorized to recruit and employ in scientific and engineering fields at the Institute foreign nationals who have been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act and who intend to become United States citizens. Employment of a person under this paragraph shall not be subject to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing employment in the competitive service, or to any prohibition in any other Act against the employment of aliens, or against the payment of compensation to them.36
SECTION. 18. RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS (15 U.S.C. 278g-1)37
(a) IN GENERAL.-The Director is authorized to expend up to 1.5 percent of the funds69 appropriated for activities of the Institute in any fiscal year, as the Director may deem desirable, for awards of research fellowships and other forms of financial assistance to students at institutions of higher learning within the United States who show promise as present or future contributors to the mission of the Institute38, and to United States citizens for research and technical activities on Institute programs39. The selection of persons to receive such fellowships and assistance shall be made on the basis of ability and of the relevance of the proposed work to the mission and programs of the Institute.
(b) MANUFACTURING FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM.-67
(1) ESTABLISHMENT.-To promote the development of a robust research community working at the leading edge of manufacturing sciences, the Director shall establish a program to award-
(A) postdoctoral research fellowships at the Institute for research activities related to manufacturing sciences; and
(B) senior research fellowships to established researchers in industry or at institutions of higher education who wish to pursue studies related to the manufacturing sciences at the Institute.
(2) APPLICATIONS.-To be eligible for an award under this subsection, an individual shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require.
(3) STIPEND LEVELS.-Under this subsection, the Director shall provide stipends for postdoctoral research fellowships at a level consistent with the National Institute of Standards and Technology Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program, and senior research fellowships at levels consistent with support for a faculty member in a sabbatical position.
SECTION. 19. POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM (15 U.S.C. 278g-2)40
The Institute41, in conjunction with the National Academy of Sciences, shall establish and conduct a post-doctoral fellowship program, subject to the availability of appropriations42, which shall be organized and carried out in substantially the same manner as the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Post-Doctoral Research Associate Program that was in effect prior to 1986, and which shall include not less than twenty nor more than 12071 new fellows per fiscal year.
SECTION. 19A. TEACHER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENT INSTITUTE PROGRAM (15 U.S.C. 278g-2a.)43
(a) The Director shall establish within the Institute a teacher science and technology enhancement program to provide for professional development of mathematics and science teachers of elementary, middle, and secondary schools (as those terms are defined by the Director), including providing for the improvement of those teachers with respect to the understanding of science and the impacts of science on commerce.
(b) In carrying out the program under this section, the Director shall focus on the areas of -
(1) scientific measurements;
(2) tests and standards development;
(3) industrial competitiveness and quality;
(5) technology transfer; and
(6) any other area of expertise of the Institute that the Director determines to be appropriate.
(c) The Director shall develop and issue procedures and selection criteria for participants in the program.
(d) The program under this section shall be conducted on an annual basis during the summer months, during the period of time when a majority of elementary, middle, and secondary schools have not commenced a school year.
(e) The program shall provide for teachers' participation in activities at the laboratory facilities of the Institute, or shall utilize other means of accomplishing the goals of the program as determined by the Director, which may include the Internet, video conferencing and recording, and workshops and conferences.
SECTION. 20. COMPUTER STANDARDS PROGRAM (15 U.S.C. 278g-3)44
(a) IN GENERAL.-The Institute shall-
(1) have the mission of developing standards, guidelines, and associated methods and techniques for information systems;
(2) develop standards and guidelines, including minimum requirements, for information systems used or operated by an agency or by a contractor of an agency or other organization on behalf of an agency, other than national security systems (as defined in section 3542 (b)(2) of title 44, United States Code); and
(3) develop standards and guidelines, including minimum requirements, for providing adequate information security for all agency operations and assets, but such standards and guidelines shall not apply to national security systems.
(b) MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES.-The standards and guidelines required by subsection (a) of this section shall include, at a minimum-
(1) (A) standards to be used by all agencies to categorize all information and information systems collected or maintained by or on behalf of each agency based on the objectives of providing appropriate levels of information security according to a range of risk levels;
(B) guidelines recommending the types of information and information systems to be included in each such category; and
(C) minimum information security requirements for information and information systems in each such category;
(2) a definition of and guidelines concerning detection and handling of information security incidents; and
(3) guidelines developed in conjunction with the Department of Defense, including the National Security Agency, for identifying an information system as a national security system consistent with applicable requirements for national security systems, issued in accordance with law and as directed by the President.
(c) DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES.-In developing standards and guidelines required by subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the Institute shall-
(1) consult with other agencies and offices and the private sector (including the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Departments of Defense and Energy, the National Security Agency, the General Accounting Office, and the Secretary of Homeland Security) to assure-
(A) use of appropriate information security policies, procedures, and techniques, in order to improve information security and avoid unnecessary and costly duplication of effort; and
(B) that such standards and guidelines are complementary with standards and guidelines employed for the protection of national security systems and information contained in such systems;
(2) provide the public with an opportunity to comment on proposed standards and guidelines;
(3) submit to the Secretary of Commerce for promulgation under section 11331 of title 40, United States Code-
(A) standards, as required under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section, no later than 12 months after enactment of this section; and
(B) minimum information security requirements for each category, as required under subsection (b)(1)(C) of this section, no later than 36 months after enactment of this section;
(4) issue guidelines as required under subsection (b)(1)(B) of this section, no later than 18 months after enactment of this section;
(5) to the maximum extent practicable, ensure that such standards and guidelines do not require the use or procurement of specific products, including any specific hardware or software;
(6) to the maximum extent practicable, ensure that such standards and guidelines provide for sufficient flexibility to permit alternative solutions to provide equivalent levels of protection for identified information security risks; and
(7) to the maximum extent practicable, use flexible, performance-based standards and guidelines that permit the use of off-the-shelf commercially developed information security products.
(d) INFORMATION SECURITY FUNCTIONS.-The Institute shall-
(1) submit standards developed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, along with recommendations as to the extent to which these should be made compulsory and binding, to the Secretary of Commerce for promulgation under section 11331 of title 40, United States Code;
(2) provide technical assistance to agencies, upon request, regarding-
(A) compliance with the standards and guidelines developed under subsection (a) of this section;
(B) detecting and handling information security incidents; and
(C) information security policies, procedures, and practices;
(3) conduct research, as needed, to determine the nature and extent of information security vulnerabilities and techniques for providing cost-effective information security;
(4) develop and periodically revise performance indicators and measures for agency information security policies and practices;
(5) evaluate private sector information security policies and practices and commercially available information technologies to assess potential application by agencies to strengthen information security;
(6) assist the private sector, upon request, in using and applying the results of activities under this section;
(7) evaluate security policies and practices developed for national security systems to assess potential application by agencies to strengthen information security;
(8) periodically assess the effectiveness of standards and guidelines developed under this section and undertake revisions as appropriate;
(9) solicit and consider the recommendations of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board, established by section 21, regarding standards and guidelines developed under subsection (a) of this section and submit such recommendations to the Secretary of Commerce with such standards submitted to the Secretary; and
(10) prepare an annual public report on activities undertaken in the previous year, and planned for the coming year, to carry out responsibilities under this section.
(e) DEFINITIONS.-As used in this section-
(1) the term 'agency' has the same meaning as provided in section 3502(1) of title 44, United States Code;
(2) the term 'information security' has the same meaning as provided in section 3542(b)(1) of such title;
(3) the term 'information system' has the same meaning as provided in section 3502(8) of such title;
(4) the term 'information technology' has the same meaning as provided in section 11101 of title 40, United States Code; and
(5) the term 'national security system' has the same meaning as provided in section 3542 (b)(2) of title 44, United States Code.
(f) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.-There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Commerce $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 to enable the National Institute of Standards and Technology to carry out the provisions of this section."
SECTION. 21. COMPUTER SYSTEM SECURITY AND PRIVACY ADVISORY BOARD (15 U.S.C. 278g-4)45
(a) There is hereby established an Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board within the Department of Commerce. The Secretary of Commerce shall appoint the chairman of the Board. The Board shall be composed of twelve additional members appointed by the Secretary of Commerce as follows:
(1) four members from outside the Federal Government who are eminent in the information technology industry, at least one of whom is representative of small or medium sized companies in such industries;
(2) four members from outside the Federal Government who are eminent in the fields of information technology, or related disciplines, but who are not employed by or representative of a producer of information technology; and
(3) four members from the Federal Government who have information system management experience, including experience in information security and privacy, at least one of whom shall be from the National Security Agency.
(b) The duties of the Board shall be-
(1) to identify emerging managerial, technical, administrative, and physical safeguard issues relative to information security and privacy;
(2) to advise the Institute, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget on information security and privacy issues pertaining to Federal Government information systems, including through review of proposed standards and guidelines developed under section 20; and
(3) to report annually its findings to the Secretary of Commerce, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Director of the National Security Agency, and the appropriate committees of the Congress.
(c) The term of office of each member of the Board shall be four years, except that-
(1) of the initial members, three shall be appointed for terms of one year, three shall be appointed for terms of two years, three shall be appointed for terms of three years, and three shall be appointed for terms of four years; and
(2) any member appointed to fill a vacancy in the Board shall serve for the remainder of the term for which his predecessor was appointed.
(d) The Board shall not act in the absence of a quorum, which shall consist of seven members.
(e) Members of the Board, other than full-time employees of the Federal Government, while attending meetings of such committees or while otherwise performing duties at the request of the Board Chairman while away from their homes or a regular place of business, may be allowed travel expenses in accordance with subchapter 1 of chapter 57 of Title 5
(f) The Board shall hold meetings at such locations and at such time and place as determined by a majority of the Board.
(g) To provide the staff services necessary to assist the Board in carrying out its functions, the Board may utilize personnel from the National Institute of Standards and Technology or any other agency of the Federal Government with the consent of the head of the agency.
(h) As used in this section, the terms 'information system' and 'information technology' have the meanings given in section 20.
SECTION. 22. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON SECURITY OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS (15 U.S.C. 278h)46
(a) ESTABLISHMENT.-The Director shall establish a program of assistance to institutions of higher education that enter into partnerships with for-profit entities to support research to improve the security of computer systems. The partnerships may also include government laboratories and nonprofit research institutions. The program shall-
(1) include multidisciplinary, long-term research;
(2) include research directed toward addressing needs identified through the activities of the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board under section 20(f); and
(3) promote the development of a robust research community working at the leading edge of knowledge in subject areas relevant to the security of computer systems by providing support for graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, and senior researchers.
(1) POST-DOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS.-The Director is authorized to establish a program to award post-doctoral research fellowships to individuals who are citizens, nationals, or lawfully admitted permanent resident aliens of the United States and are seeking research positions at institutions, including the Institute, engaged in research activities related to the security of computer systems, including the research areas described in section 4(a)(1) of the Cyber Security Research and Development Act.
(2) SENIOR RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS.-The Director is authorized to establish a program to award senior research fellowships to individuals seeking research positions at institutions, including the Institute, engaged in research activities related to the security of computer systems, including the research areas described in section 4(a)(1) of the Cyber Security Research and Development Act. Senior research fellowships shall be made available for established researchers at institutions of higher education who seek to change research fields and pursue studies related to the security of computer systems.
(A) IN GENERAL.-To be eligible for an award under this subsection, an individual shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require.
(B) STIPENDS.-Under this subsection, the Director is authorized to provide stipends for post-doctoral research fellowships at the level of the Institute's Post Doctoral Research Fellowship Program and senior research fellowships at levels consistent with support for a faculty member in a sabbatical position.
(c) AWARDS; APPLICATIONS.-
(1) IN GENERAL.-The Director is authorized to award grants or cooperative agreements to institutions of higher education to carry out the program established under subsection (a). No funds made available under this section shall be made available directly to any for-profit partners.
(2) ELIGIBILITY.-To be eligible for an award under this section, an institution of higher education shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require. The application shall include, at a minimum, a description of-
(A) the number of graduate students anticipated to participate in the research project and the level of support to be provided to each;
(B) the number of post-doctoral research positions included under the research project and the level of support to be provided to each;
(C) the number of individuals, if any, intending to change research fields and pursue studies related to the security of computer systems to be included under the research project and the level of support to be provided to each; and
(D) how the for-profit entities, nonprofit research institutions, and any other partners will participate in developing and carrying out the research and education agenda of the partnership.
(d) PROGRAM OPERATION.-
(1) MANAGEMENT.-The program established under subsection (a) shall be managed by individuals who shall have both expertise in research related to the security of computer systems and knowledge of the vulnerabilities of existing computer systems. The Director shall designate such individuals as program managers.
(2) MANAGERS MAY BE EMPLOYEES.-Program managers designated under paragraph (1) may be new or existing employees of the Institute or individuals on assignment at the Institute under the Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970, except that individuals on assignment at the Institute under the Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 shall not directly manage such employees.
(3) MANAGER RESPONSIBILITY.-Program managers designated under paragraph (1) shall be responsible for-
(A) establishing and publicizing the broad research goals for the program;
(B) soliciting applications for specific research projects to address the goals developed under subparagraph (A);
(C) selecting research projects for support under the program from among applications submitted to the Institute, following consideration of-
(i) the novelty and scientific and technical merit of the proposed projects;
(ii) the demonstrated capabilities of the individual or individuals submitting the applications to successfully carry out the proposed research;
(iii) the impact the proposed projects will have on increasing the number of computer security researchers;
(iv) the nature of the participation by for-profit entities and the extent to which the proposed projects address the concerns of industry; and
(v) other criteria determined by the Director, based on information specified for inclusion in applications under subsection (c); and
(vi) monitoring the progress of research projects supported under the program.
(4) REPORTS.-The Director shall report to the Senate Committee on Commerce