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911. Rockwell Hardness - A Method-Dependent Standards Reference Material
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 7/1/1999
Authors: Samuel Rea Low III, R Gettings, Walter S Liggett Jr, Jun-Feng Song
Abstract: Rockwell hardness is a method-dependent measurement of the deformation of a material in response to an applied force. It is not a fundamental physical property of a material. There are no alternative measurement systems to directly or independently m ...

912. Voltage Modulation Scanned Probe Oxidation
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 7/1/1999
Authors: F Perez-murano, K Birkelund, K Morimoto, John A Dagata
Abstract: Scanned probe microscope (SPM) oxidation with voltage modulation leads to a significant enhancement of the oxide growth rate, improvement of the aspect ratio of oxide features, and control of the structural and electrical properties of the SPM oxide. ...

913. Assessment Error Sources in Rockwell Hardness Measurements
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 6/1/1999
Authors: Walter S Liggett Jr, Samuel Rea Low III, David J Pitchure, Jun-Feng Song
Abstract: In the use of hardness test blocks, the uncertainty due to block non-uniformity can be reduced if one is willing to make measurements at specified locations on the blocks. Statistical methods for achieving this reduction are explained in this paper. ...

914. Dimensional Metrology with the NIST Calibrated Atomic Force Microscope
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 6/1/1999
Authors: Ronald G Dixson, R Koning, V W. Tsai, Joseph Fu, Theodore Vincent Vorburger
Abstract: Atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are increasingly used in the semiconductor industry as tools for submicrometer dimensional metrology. The scales of an AFM must be calibrated in order to perform accurate measurements. We have designed and developed th ...

915. Focus and Edge Detection Algorithms and Their Relevance to the Development of an Optical Overlay Calibration Standard
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 6/1/1999
Authors: S Fox, M Dagenais, Edward A Kornegay, Richard M Silver
Abstract: We present results of investigations into optical focus and edge detection algorithms relevant to overlay metrology. We compare gradient energy, standard deviation, contrast and summed intensity of acquired images as focus metrics for bright-field, s ...

916. Intercomparison of SEM, AFM, and Electrical Linewidths
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 6/1/1999
Authors: John S Villarrubia, Ronald G Dixson, Samuel N Jones, J R. Lowney, Michael T Postek, Richard A Allen, Michael W Cresswell
Abstract: Uncertainty in the locations of line edges dominates the uncertainty budget for high quality sub-micrometer linewidth measurements. For microscopic techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), the image of the ...

917. Measurement Traceability to NIST Standard Rockwell Diamond Indenters
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 6/1/1999
Author: Jun-Feng Song
Abstract: A metrology-based Rockwell hardness scale is established by a standard machine and a standard diamond indenter. Both must be established through force and dimensional metrology with acceptably small measurement uncertainties. In 1994, NIST developed ...

918. Measurement Uncertainity and Noise in Nanometrology
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 6/1/1999
Author: James Edward Potzick
Abstract: The measurement of feature sizes on integrated circuit photomasks and wafers is an economically important and technically challenging application of nanometrology. The displacement measuring laser heterodyne interferometer is a popular tool in such ...

919. Modeling and Experimental Aspects of Apparent Beam Width as an Edge Resolution Measure
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 6/1/1999
Authors: C Archie, J R. Lowney, Michael T Postek
Abstract: The SEMATECH advanced metrology advisory group (AMAG) recently issued a critical dimension (CD) scanning electron microscope (SEM) specification. One component of this specification was the measurement of the apparent beam width (ABW). The edge width ...

920. Optical Linewidth Models: Then and Now
Topic: Manufacturing
Published: 6/1/1999
Authors: Robert D. Larrabee, Richard M Silver, M P Davidson
Abstract: In the late 1970's, Dr. Diana Nyyssonen demonstrated that NIST could optically calibrate photomask linewidth standards that were narrower than the classical resolution limit of a conventional bright-field microscope. She equated the known position of ...

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