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Author: Yaw Obeng

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1. Non-destructive Measurement of the Residual Stresses in Copper Through-Silicon Vias using Synchrotron Based Micro-beam X-ray Diffraction
Published: 7/1/2014
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Lyle E Levine, Yaw S Obeng, Klaus Hummler, Ruqing Xu
Abstract: In this study, we report a new method for achieving depth resolved determination of the full stress tensor in buried Cu through-silicon vias (TSVs), using synchrotron based X-ray micro-diffraction technique. Two adjacent Cu TSVs were analyzed; on ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=915348

2. Synchrotron-Based Measurement of the Impact of Thermal Cycling on the Evolution of Stresses in Cu Through-Silicon Via
Published: 6/30/2014
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Lyle E Levine, Ruqing Xu, Klaus Hummler, Yaw S Obeng
Abstract: One of the main causes of failure during the lifetime of microelectronics devices is their exposure to fluctuating temperatures. In this work, synchrotron-based X-ray micro-diffraction is used to study the evolution of stresses in copper through-sili ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=915982

3. Microwave-Based Metrology Platform Development: Application of Broad-Band RF Metrology to Integrated Circuit Reliability Analyses
Published: 5/12/2014
Authors: Lin You, Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Jungjoon Ahn, Joseph J Kopanski, Yaw S Obeng
Abstract: In this paper we describe the development of a suite of techniques, based on the application of high frequency electromagnetic waves, to probe material and structural changes in integrated circuits under various external perturbations. We discuss how ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=915367

4. Scanning Probe Microscopes for Subsurface Imaging
Published: 5/11/2014
Authors: Joseph J Kopanski, Lin You, Jungjoon Ahn, Emily Hitz, Yaw S Obeng
Abstract: Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) have some ability to image sub-surface structures. This paper describes the theoretical and practical basis for imaging metal lines buried beneath insulating layers and for imaging insulating regions or voids within ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=915483

5. A Detailed Failure Analysis Examination of the Effect of Thermal Cycling on Cu TSV Reliability
Published: 1/1/2014
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, June Waiyin Lau, Yaw S Obeng, Klaus Hummler
Abstract: In this work, a detailed failure analysis of the physical root cause for the increase in electrical resistance and radio-frequency (RF) transmission coefficient of through-silicon via (TSV) daisy chain was investigated. Six different failure modes we ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=913115

6. Back-End-of-Line Test Structure Design and Simulation for Subsurface Metrology with Scanning Probe Microscopy
Published: 12/13/2013
Authors: Lin You, Emily Hitz, Jungjoon Ahn, Yaw S Obeng, Joseph J Kopanski
Abstract: As demands in the semiconductor industry call for further miniaturization and performance enhancement of electronic systems, the traditional planar (2D) electronic interconnection and packaging technologies show their difficulties in meeting the ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=915013

7. Development of a Methodology to Determine Risk of Counterfeit Use
Published: 6/5/2013
Authors: Mark Schaffer, Yaw S Obeng
Abstract: Counterfeit components have become a multi-million dollar, yet undesirable, part of the electronics industry. The profitability of the counterfeit industry rests in large part on its ability to recognize supply constraints and quickly respond, effect ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=914105

8. Accelerated Stress Test Assessment of Through-Silicon Vias Using RF Signals
Published: 6/1/2013
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Pavel Kabos, Jan Obrzut, Klaus Hummler, Yaw S Obeng
Abstract: In this work, radio frequency (RF) signal is demonstrated as an effective metrology tool for the assessment of the effect of thermal cycling on the reliability of through-silicon via (TSV) stacked dies. It was found that RF signal integrity of TSV da ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=912850

9. Use of RF-Based Technique as a Metrology Tool for TSV Reliability Analysis
Published: 5/28/2013
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Yaw S Obeng, Jan Obrzut, Pavel Kabos, Klaus Hummler
Abstract: In this work, we used radio frequency (RF) based measurement technique is used as a prognostic tool for the assessment of the effect of thermal cycling on the reliability of through-silicon via (TSV) stacked dies. It was found that RF signal integrit ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=913332

10. X-Ray Micro-Beam Diffraction Determination of Full Stress Tensors in Cu TSVs
Published: 5/28/2013
Authors: Chukwudi Azubuike Okoro, Lyle E Levine, Oleg A Kirillov, Yaw S Obeng, Ruqing Xu, Jonathan Z Tischler, Wenjun Liu, Klaus Hummler
Abstract: We report the first non-destructive, depth resolved determination of the full stress tensor in Cu through-silicon vias (TSVs), using synchrotron based micro-beam X-ray diffraction. Two adjacent Cu TSVs were studied; one deliberately capped with SiO2, ...
http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=913440



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