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You searched on: Author: lowell howard

Displaying records 11 to 19.
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11. Sources of Error in Absolute Distance Interferometry
Published: 1/1/1999
Authors: Jack A Stone Jr., Alois Stejskal, Lowell P. Howard
Abstract: In this paper we describe the status of our research on the use of diode lasers for absolute distance interferometry, and we discuss the major sources of uncertainty that limit the accuracy of this technique for distance measurement. We have primaril ...

12. A Simple Technique for Observing Fringe Interpolation Errors in Michelson Interferometers
Published: 10/1/1998
Authors: Jack A Stone Jr., Lowell P. Howard
Abstract: We describe a simple, convenient method for measuring nonlinearities in displacement-measuring Michelson interferometers. Nonlinearities with a spatial periodicity of one optical fringe are a well-known source of error in precision interferometry. Ou ...

13. Accurate Force Measurements for Miniature Mechanical Systems: A Review of Progress
Published: 9/1/1997
Authors: Lowell P. Howard, Joseph Fu
Abstract: A survey of nanonewton force calibration techniques suitable for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is presented. The reviewed techniques include: mass-derived force, pendulums, calibrated master spings, resonance and electromagnetic techniques. ...

14. A Differential Wavelength Meter for Laser Tuning
Published: 1/1/1997
Authors: Lowell P. Howard, Jack A Stone Jr.
Abstract: A simple interferometer for matching the wavelengths of tunable lasers is described. Our interferometer uses the angular dispersion of a diffraction grating at the Littrow angle to produce a tilted wavefront with respect to a reference mirror in an o ...

15. Fabry-Perot Interferometers for Small Displacement Measurements
Published: 1/1/1996
Authors: Lowell P. Howard, Fredric Scire, Jack A Stone Jr.
Abstract: A description of a Fabry-Perot interferometer for measuring small displacements is given. The instruments consists of a fiber-optic-coupled actuator and mirror guiding mechanisms, a tunable diode laser for tracking the changes in cavity length and a ...

16. Novel Methods for Length Measurement Employing Diode Lasers
Published: 1/1/1996
Authors: Jack A Stone Jr., Lowell P. Howard, Alois Stejskal, M Stephens, C Oates, L Hollberg
Abstract: Diode lasers have several unique capabilities for length-measurement applications, arising from properties of the diodes that are much different from those of the venerable helium-neon laser presently used for most interferometric measurements. For e ...

17. Wavelength-Shift Interferometry: Using a Dither to Improve Accuracy
Published: 1/1/1996
Authors: Jack A Stone Jr., Alois Stejskal, Lowell P. Howard
Abstract: A dither in path length can dramatically improve the accuracy of wavelength-shift methods used for absolute distance interferometry. Here we report how a dither improves the accuracy of absolute distance measurement by two orders of magnitude, reduci ...

18. Computer Modeling of Heterodyne Interferometer Errors
Published: 1/1/1995
Authors: Lowell P. Howard, Jack A Stone Jr.
Abstract: A computer model and methodology for modeling optical mixing errors in heterodyne interferometers is presented. The model is based on the Jones calculus and uses a matrix formalism to eliminate simplifications and reduce assumptions in the model. The ...

19. Force Calibrations in the Nanonewton Regime
Published: 1/1/1994
Authors: Lowell P. Howard, E Clayton Teague
Abstract: An instrument is described which is shown capable of making preliminary measurements of nanonewton forces. A technique is described which allows absolute calibrations of small forces to be made in terms of electrical measurements.

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