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2007 RoboCup Nanogram Demonstration Competition
View Competition Program: PDF | HTML
Competition Results

Welcome to Nanosoccer!

Imagine a mechanical Pelé or David Beckham six times smaller than an amoeba playing with a “soccer ball” no wider than a human hair on a field that can fit on a grain of rice. Purely science fiction? Not anymore.

The U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted the first nanoscale soccer games at the 2007 RoboCup in Atlanta, Ga., on July 7-8, 2007, on the campus of the Georgia Institute of Technology.

RoboCup is an annual international competition designed to foster innovations and advances in artificial intelligence and intelligent robotics by using the game of soccer as a testing ground. NIST hopes that a competition between the smallest robots in RoboCup history will show the feasibility and accessibility of technologies for fabricating MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS), tiny mechanical devices that are built onto semiconductor chips and are measured in micrometers (millionth of a meter).

The 2007 RoboCup featured six competition leagues: Four-Legged, Humanoid, Middle Size, Small Size, Simulation and Rescue Robot. RoboCup and NIST jointly organized the first nanosoccer competition as a demonstration event with plans for it to become the Nanogram League in 2008. Five teams participated in the Nanogram Demonstration Competition: two from Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, Pa.), and one each from the U.S. Naval Academy (Annapolis, Md.), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Zurich, Switzerland) and Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada).

How does the nanosoccer competition work?

The soccer nanobots (nanoscale robots) operate under an optical microscope, are controlled by remote electronics using visual feedback and are viewed on a monitor. While they are a few tens of micrometers to a few hundred micrometers long, the robots are considered “nanoscale” because their masses range from a few nanograms to a few hundred nanograms.

To win the competition, a nanobot must be fast, agile and capable of manipulating objects. These abilities are tested in three events: a two-millimeter dash in which each nanobot seeks the best time for a goal-to-goal sprint across the playing field; a slalom drill where the path between goals is blocked by "defenders" (polymer posts) and a ball handling drill that requires robots to “dribble” as many “nanoballs” (microdisks with the diameter of a human hair) as possible into the goal within a 3-minute period.

photo of the microchip
Microchip with Nanosoccer Fields of Play
The glass microchip on the left measures 3 centimeters across - slightly more than the diameter of a quarter on the right - and is divided into sixteen 2.5 millimeter by 2.5 millimeter nanosoccer playing fields.
> download high-res image <

video camera icon Click here for video of Swiss nanosoccer robot scoring goals with nanoball (microdisk) (AVI file).

nanosoccer ball
Nanosoccer Ball
This is a silicon dioxide disk (top view) about the diameter of a human hair (100 µm) that can be pushed across the Nanogram Soccer field of play by the nanosoccer robots. The "T" is a mark for spotting the ball on the field. The three circles are the location of the raised dimples on the underside of the disk that allow movement across the field.
> download high-res image <

diagram of the field of play

> download high-res image <


photomicrograph of open nanosoccer field


Photomicrograph of
Open Field
> download high-res image <
photomicrograph of nanosoccer field with defenders  Photomicrograph of
Field with Defenders
> download high-res image <

team CMU 1 



ETH Zurich
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
(Zurich, Switzerland)
Length≈300 µm
Nickel and Gold

team CMU 2 
Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, PA)
Length≈300 µm
Silicon Dioxide and Aluminum
team ETH Zurich  Magic and Voodoo
Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, PA)
Length≈300 µm
Neodymium Iron Boride
Polymer MEMS Pros
Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C., Canada)
Length≈250 µm
Polymer and Metal
U.S. Naval Academy (Annapolis, MD)
Length≈300 µm
Silicon and Chromium
team Polymer MEMS Pro  ETH Zurich
"Nanogram Robotic Soccer" Web site.
team USNA