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|Author(s):||Cedric J. Powell;|
|Title:||Surface Analysis by Electron Spectroscopy at High Pressures|
|Published:||March 01, 1978|
|Abstract:||Surface analyses are now made by techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and appearance potential spectroscopy (APS). These techniques utilize low-energy electrons and have high surface sensitivity but cannot be used at high pressures [10-4 Torr(10-2 Pa)]. Optical techinques can be used at high pressures but their surface sensitivity is poor. It is proposed to combine these approaches by using the high-pressure gas as a converter. Two situations are considered. First, variable-energy x-rays are used to produce variable-energy photoelectrons from the gas which impinge on the sample; these electrons constitute a suitable source for APs. Second, the variable-energy x-rays produce photoelectrons from the sample (XPS) of variable energy; these electrons can be detected using the gas for APS. In both cases, the derivative of the x-ray yield from the gas-sample cell is measured as a function of incident x-ray energy; features in the derivative spectrum can be correlated with the core levels of surface atoms of the sample. Design calculations based on x-ray intensities from available sources indicate that the proposed method could only be useful for specialized applications.|
|Citation:||Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology|
|Pages:||pp. 549 - 552|
|Research Areas:||Surface Physics|