We present a unified treatment of frequency-standard biases that vary significantly during the time of measurement. We introduce three time-dependent weight functions built from the solution of the unperturbed equations of motion for a two-level system. By integrating a weight function together with the time dependence of a perturbation over the excitation time we find the change in the lineshape and can deduce any biases. The same weight function may be used for treating more than one cause of a bias.
Proceedings Title: Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology
Conference Dates: October 5-11, 2008
Conference Location: Pacific Grove, CA
Conference Title: 7th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology
Pub Type: Conferences
primaray frequency standard, atomic clock