An efficient class of x-ray phase contrast imaging and scatter correction methods share the idea of using structured illumination in the form of a periodic fringe pattern created with gratings or grids. They measure the scatter and distortion of the x-ray wavefront through the attenuation and distortion of the pattern via a phase stepping process. Phase stepping describes image acquisition at regular phase intervals by shifting a grating in uniform steps. However, in practical conditions the actual phase intervals can vary from step to step and also spatially. Particularly with the advent of electromagnetic phase stepping without physical movement of a grating, the phase intervals are dependent upon the focal plane of interest. We describe a demodulation algorithm for phase stepping at arbitrary and position-dependent (APD) phase intervals without assuming a priori knowledge. The algorithm determines the spatial distribution of the phase intervals by a Fourier transform method. With this ability, grating-based x-ray imaging becomes more adaptable and robust for broader applications.
Citation: PLoS One
Pub Type: Journals
X-ray imaging, phase contrast, Radiography, CT, Tomography, microscopy, phase retrieval, grating, grid, mask, scatter imaging, scatter correction, anti-scatter, darkfield, fringe analysis, demodulation, de-convolution, higher order harmonics, wavefront analysis, interferogram, interferometry, phase stepping, arbitrary phase stepping, position dependent phase stepping, non-uniform phase stepping, retrospective, phase shift, Fourier transform method, Fourier domain analysis, harmonic analysis, phase contrast enhanced