A survey of nanonewton force calibration techniques suitable for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is presented. The reviewed techniques include: mass-derived force, pendulums, calibrated master spings, resonance and electromagnetic techniques. Considerable background material is provided to support the hypothesis that virtual power methods, such as those employed on the NIST watt balance, are applicable to the MEMS force calibration problem. A review of progress at NIST on two prototype nanowatt balances designed for MEMS calibration is given.
Proceedings Title: Proceedings of SPIE, Microlithography and Metrology in Micromachining III, Craig R. Friedrich, Akira Umeda, Editors
Conference Dates: September 29, 1997
Conference Location: Austin, TX
Conference Title: Micrometrology Techniques
Pub Type: Conferences
AFM, force measurement, MEMS, nanonewton