Tens of thousands of explosive detection systems are currently deployed by federal, state, and local governments to protect the public from terrorist explosive crime. These "field" detectors are used in many locations such as at airport security checkpoints, marine terminals, loading docks, border crossings, and building entrances to detect and prevent the passage of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). To date, there are no available reference materials for trace explosives to evaluate the performance of these detectors. Providing NIST SRMs and ASTM Standards will support the optimization of instrument design and validation, as well as promote evaluation of performance prior to procurement and throughout the lifetime of the device. "Raising the bar" for detector performance will save money spent on ineffective equipment, more effectively detect terrorist acts in advance, and potentially save lives.