Objective - To develop the measurement science for industry standards that will enable interconnection of home and building automation and control systems with a future "smart" utility grid, provide consumers with energy usage information, and support industry efforts to develop the needed standards.
What is the new technical idea? The new technical idea is to integrate homes and buildings into the next generation “smart grid” by developing the technical basis for standards governing real-time pricing, distributed energy resources (DER) (including demand response (DR), distributed generation, and energy storage), electric vehicle charging control, and consumer access to energy usage information. This project will develop information models, data representation methods, and communication protocols to enable these activities, working with industry stakeholders to analyze use cases and develop approaches that can be adopted through consensus standards. In addition, this project will perform research into novel facility control methodologies based on DER availability, electricity price, and local markets, with testing in a simulation environment, in the NIST Virtual Cybernetic Building Testbed (VCBT), Smart Grid Testbed, and in the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERF).
What is the research plan? This project addresses communications, interoperability, and control approaches for residential, commercial, institutional and industrial buildings via three research components: (1) information model development to enable data exchange within building systems and between buildings and the smart grid, (2) building controls research for optimal response to dynamic pricing and demand management signals in commercial and residential buildings, and (3) simulation and laboratory testing. EL collaborates with industry stakeholders in the Smart Electric Power Alliance (SEPA) to identify interoperability standard gaps and research needs.
The information modeling effort includes definition of the building-to-grid communications interface, identifying key information elements needed for grid-to-facility communications, and development of priority facility interface standards as identified in the NIST Smart Grid Framework. This work is input to the development and maintenance of several standards:
Information modeling standards
- American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/ National Electrical Manufacturers Association Facility Smart Grid Information Model
- North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) REQ.18/WEQ.19 Energy Usage Information standard
- Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) Energy Market Information eXchange (EMIX) standard for price
Protocol implementation standards
- NAESB REQ.21 Energy Service Provider Interface (ESPI)
- OASIS Energy Interoperation for DR signals and market interactions
- Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62746-10-1 Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR)
- Extensions to ASHRAE Building Automation Control Network standard (BACnet) for meter, price and distributed energy resource communications
- Extension to BACnet web services to support Energy Interoperation
- Standards for residential appliances and industrial process control implementation
The building controls research component will develop load and generation prediction algorithms, and demand response optimization strategies for residential and commercial building interaction with the smart grid. These algorithms will consider: demand response signals; future electricity price, weather and occupancy information; availability of renewable energy (including storage); and user inputs.
The simulation and testing component will utilize unique NIST laboratory facilities (VCBT, NZERTF, and Smart Grid Testbed) to test and demonstrate success of the information models and control strategies, and provide input into building codes and standards. EL will study the impact of individual devices on distribution grid power quality and operations, including capability to provide grid services. In addition, EL will work with external partners to strengthen transactive energy simulation models and tools. EL will also support the broader NIST smart grid program, providing technical direction and leadership within the SEPA on issues related to building interactions with the smart grid. EL will provide leadership within ASHRAE, OASIS, NAESB, and IEC to advance the standards listed above.