The following publications have been approved for release by NIST. The downloadable versions may differ slightly from the final, published versions.
M. Affolter, K. A. Gilmore, J. E. Jordan, and J. J. Bollinger, "Phase-coherent sensing of the center-of-mass motion of trapped-ion crystals", Phys. Rev. A 102, 052609 (2020).
A. Shankar, C. Tang, M. Affolter, K. Gilmore, D. H. E. Dubin, S. Parker, M. J. Holland, and J. J. Bollinger, "Broadening of the drumhead mode spectrum due to in-plane thermal fluctuations of two-dimensional trapped-ion crystals in a Penning trap", Phys. Rev. A 102, 053106 (2020).
B. Alexander, J. J. Bollinger, and H. Uys, "Generating Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with squeezing and postselection", Phys. Rev. A 101, 062303 (2020).
W. Ge, B. C. Sawyer, J. W. Britton, K. Jacobs, M. Foss-Feig, and J. J. Bollinger, "Stroboscopic approach to trapped-ion quantum information processing with squeezed phonons", Phys. Rev. A 100, 043417 (2019)
Elena Jordan, Kevin A. Gilmore, Athreya Shankar, Arghavan Safavi-Naini, Justin G. Bohnet, Murray J. Holland, John J. Bollinger, “Near ground-state cooling of two-dimensional trapped-ion crystals with more than 100 ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 056603 (2019).
Athreya Shankar, Elena Jordan, Kevin A. Gilmore, Arghavan Safavi-Naini, John J. Bollinger, Murray J. Holland, “Modeling near ground-state cooling of two-dimensional ion crystals in a Penning trap using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 023409 (2019).
R. J. Lewis-Swan, A. Safavi-Naini, J. J. Bollinger, A. M. Rey, “Unifying fast scrambling, thermalization and entanglement through the measurement of FOTOCs in the Dicke model,” Nat. Commun. 10, 1581 (2019).
Wenchao Ge, Brian Sawyer, Joe Britton, Kurt Jacobs, John Bollinger, Michael Foss-Feig, “Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing with Squeezed Phonons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 030501 (2019).
J. Cohn, A. Safavi-Naini, R. J. Lewis-Swan, J. G. Bohnet, M. Gärttner, K. A. Gilmore, J. E. Jordan, A. M. Rey, J. J. Bollinger, J. K. Freericks, “Bang-bang shortcut to adiabaticity in the Dicke model as realized in a Penning trap experiment,” New J. Phys. 20, 055013 (2018).
A. Safavi-Naini, R. J. Lewis-Swan, J. G. Bohnet, M. Garttner, K. A. Gilmore, J. E. Jordan, J. Cohn, J. K. Freericks, A. M. Rey, J. J. Bollinger, “Verification of a many-ion simulator of the Dicke model through slow quenches across a phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 040503 (2018).
Kevin A. Gilmore, Justin G. Bohnet, Brian C. Sawyer, Joseph W. Britton, John J. Bollinger, "Amplitude sensing below the zero-point fluctuations with a two-dimensional trapped-ion mechanical oscillator", Phys. Rev. Lett., 118, 263602 (2017).
Athreya Shankar, John Cooper, Justin G. Bohnet, John J. Bollinger, Murray Holland, "Steady-state spin synchronization through the collective motion of trapped ions", Phys. Rev. A 95, 033423 (2017).
Martin Gärttner, Justin G. Bohnet, Arghavan Safavi-Naini, Michael L. Wall, John J. Bollinger, Ana Maria Rey, "Measuring out-of-time-order correlations and multiple quantum spectra in a trapped ion quantum magnet," Nat. Phys., 13, 781 (2016). PDF file
Justin G. Bohnet, Brian C. Sawyer, Joseph W. Britton, Michael L. Wall, Ana Maria Rey, Michael Foss-Feig, John J. Bollinger , "Quantum spin dynamics and entanglement generation with hundreds of trapped ions," Science 352, 1297 (2016).
Joseph W. Britton, Brian C. Sawyer, Justin G. Bohnet, Hermann Uys, Michael J. Biercuk, John J. Bollinger, "Vibration-induced field fluctuations in a superconducting magnet," Phys. Rev. A 93, 062511 (2016).
S. B. Torrisi, J. W. Britton, J. G. Bohnet, and J. J. Bollinger, "Perpendicular laser cooling with a rotating-wall potential in a Penning trap", Phys. Rev. A 93, 043421 (2016).
Brian C. Sawyer, Justin G. Bohnet, Joseph W. Britton, John J. Bollinger, "Reversing hydride-ion formation in quantum-information experiments with Be+," Phys. Rev. A 91, 011401 (2015).
Kyle Arnold, Elnur Hajiyev, Eduardo Paez, Chern Hui Lee, Murray D. Barrett, John J. Bollinger, "Prospects for atomic clocks based on large ion crystals," Phys. Rev. A 92, 032108 (2015).
Brian C. Sawyer, Joseph W. Britton, John J. Bollinger, "Spin Dephasing as a Probe of Mode Temperature, Motional State Distributions, and Heating Rates in a 2D Ion Crystal," Phys. Rev. A 89, 033408 (2014)
Michael Foss-Feig, Kaden R A Hazzard, John J Bollinger, Ana Maria Rey, Charles W Clark, "Dynamical quantum correlations of Ising models on an arbitrary lattice and their resilience to decoherence," New Journal of Physics 15, 113008 (2013) PDF file
M. van den Worm, R. Paskauskas, B.C. Sawyer, J.J. Bollinger, and M. Kastner, "Relaxation timescales and decay of correlations in along-range interacting quantum simulator," New J. Phys. 15 083007 (2013). PDF file
M. Foss-Feig, K.R.A. Hazzard, J.J. Bollinger, and A.M. Rey, "Nonequilibrium dynamics of arbitrary-range Ising models with decoherence: An exact analytic solution," PHYSICAL REVIEW A87, 042101 (2013).
J.J. Bollinger, J.W. Britton, and B.C. Sawyer, "Simulating Quantum Magnetism with Correlated Non-Neutral Ion Plasmas," in Non-Neutral Plasma Physics VIII, AIP Conf. Proc. 1521, 200-209 (2013).
J.W. Britton, B.C. Sawyer, A.C. Keith, C.-C.J. Wang, J.K. Freericks, H. Uys, M.J. Biercuk, and J.J. Bollinger, "Engineered two-dimensional Ising interactions in a trapped-ion quantum simulator with hundreds of spins", Nature 484, 489 (2012).
B.C. Sawyer, J.W. Britton, A.C. Keith, C.-C.J. Wang, J.K. Freericks, H. Uys, M.J. Biercuk, and J.J. Bollinger, "Spectroscopy and Thermometry of Transverse Modes in a Planar One-Component Plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213003 (2012). PDF file
N. Shiga, W.M. Itano, and J.J. Bollinger, "Diamagnetic correction to the 9Be+ ground-state hyperfine constant", Phys. Rev. A 84, 012510 (2011). PDF file
M.J. Biercuk, H. Uys, J.W. Britton, A.P. VanDevender, and J.J. Bollinger, "Phase-coherent detection of an optical dipole force by Doppler velocimetry," Opt. Exp. 19, 10304 (2011).
H. Uys, M.J. Biercuk, A. VanDevender, C. Ospelkaus, D. Meiser, R. Ozeri, and J.J. Bollinger, "Decoherence due to elastic Rayleigh scattering," Physical Review Letters 105, 200401 (2010).
M.J. Biercuk, J. Britton, H. Uys, A. VanDevender, and J.J. Bollinger, " Yocto-Newton force detection sensitivity using trapped ions," Nature Nanotechnology 5, 646–650 (2010).
Michael J. Biercuk, Hermann Uys, Aaron P. VanDevender, Nobuyasu Shiga, Wayne M. Itano, John J. Bollinger; "High-Fidelity Quantum Control Using Ion Crystals in a Penning Trap," Quantum Info. and Comp. 9, 920-949 (2009) Preprint: arXiv:0906.0398v1. PDF file
Hermann Uys, Michael J. Biercuk, John J. Bollinger; "Optimized Noise Filtration through Dynamical Decoupling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 040501 (2009). Preprint: arXiv:0904.0036v2. PDF file
Michael J. Biercuk, Hermann Uys, Aaron P. VanDevender, Nobuyasu Shiga, Wayne M. Itano, John J. Bollinger; "Experimental Uhrig Dynamical Decoupling using Trapped Ions," Phys. Rev. A 79, 062324 (2009). Preprint: arXiv:0902.2957v3.
M. J. Biercuk, H. Uys, A. P. VanDevender, N. Shiga, W. M. Itano, and J.J. Bollinger, "Optimized dynamical decoupling in a model quantum memory," Nature 458, 996 (2009) and Preprint: arXiv:0812.5095v3.
J.J. Bollinger, M. J. Delaney, T. Hasegawa, and D.H.E. Dubin, "Heating Rates and Enhanced Equilibration Rates with Strongly Correlated Ions in a Penning-Malmberg Trap," in Non-Neutral Plasma Physics VI: Proceedings of the Workshop on Non-Neutral Plasmas, Aarhus, Denmark June, 2006, ed. by M. Drewsen, U. Uggerhoj, and H. Knudsen, (AIP, New York 2006) p. 183 - 192.
T. Hasegawa and J. J. Bollinger, "Rotating-radio-frequency ion traps," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043403-1 -- 043403-8 (2005).
T. Hasegawa, M. J. Jensen, and J. J. Bollinger, "Stability of a Penning trap with a quadrupole rotating electric field," Phys. Rev. A 71, 023406-1 --023406-6 (2005).
M. J. Jensen, T. Hasegawa, J. J. Bollinger, and D. H. E. Dubin, "Rapid heating of a strongly coupled plasma near the solid-liquid phase transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 025001-1 -- 025001-4 (2005). PDF file
F. Skiff and J.J. Bollinger, "Mini-conference on laser-induced fluorescence in plasmas," Physics Plasmas 11, 2972-2975 (2004).
M. J. Jensen, T. Hasegawa, and J. J. Bollinger, "Temperature and heating rate of ion crystals in Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033401-1 -- 033401-13 (2004).
M. J. Jensen, T. Hasegawa, and J. J. Bollinger, "Temperature measurements of laser-cooled ions in a Penning trap," in Non Neutral Plasmas V, AIP Conf. Proceedings 692, edited by M. Schauer et al. (American Institute of Physics, 2003) p. 193 - 201.
B. M. Jelenkovic, A. S. Newbury, J. J. Bollinger, W. M. Itano, and T. B. Mitchell, "Sympathetically cooled and compressed positron plasma," Phys. Rev. A 67, 063406-1 -- 063406-9 (2003).
J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Kriesel, T. B. Mitchell, L. B. King, M. J. Jensen, W. M. Itano, and D. H. E. Dubin, "Laser-cooled ion plasmas in Penning Traps," J. Phys. B 36, 499-510 (2003).
T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Kriesel, L. B. King, M. J. Jensen, W. M. Itano, and D. H. E. Dubin, "Strongly correlated ion plasmas in Penning Traps," J. Phys. B 36, 6117-6118 (2003).
B. M. Jelenkovic, A. S. Newbury, J. J. Bollinger, T. B. Mitchell, and W. M. Itano, "Sympathetically laser-cooled positrons," Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 192, 117-127 (2002).
J.M. Kriesel, J.J. Bollinger, T.B. Mitchell, L.B. King, and D.H.E. Dubin, "Laser-Generated Waves and Wakes in Rotating Ion Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 1-4 (2002).
T.B. Mitchell, J.J. Bollinger, W.M. Itano, J.M. Kriesel, and D.H.E. Dubin, "Doppler Velocimetry of Cryogenic Ion Plasmas," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 30, 16-17 (2002).
B. M. Jelenkovic, A. S. Newbury, J. J. Bollinger, T. B. Mitchell, and W. M. Itano, "A laser-cooled, high density positron plasma," in Non-Neutral Plasma Physics IV, proc. Workshop on Non-Neutral Plasmas, San Diego, 30 July-2 August 2001, edited by F. Anderegg, L. Schweikhard, and C. F. Driscoll, AIP Conf. Proc. 606 (AIP, Melville, NY, 2002) p. 63-72.
J. M. Kriesel, J. J. Bollinger, T. B. Mitchell, L. B. King, and D. H. E. Dubin, "Laser-induced wakes in ion crystals," in Non-Neutral Plasma Physics IV, proc. Workshop on Non-Neutral Plasmas, San Diego, 30 July-2 August 2001, edited by F. Anderegg, L. Schweikhard, and C. F. Driscoll, AIP Conf. Proc. 606 (AIP, Melville, NY, 2002) p. 121-126. PDF file
T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, W. M. Itano, and D. H. E. Dubin, "Experimental dynamics of stressed, strongly correlated magnetized plasmas," in Non-Neutral Plasma Physics IV, proc. Workshop on Non-Neutral Plasmas, San Diego, 30 July-2 August 2001, edited by F. Anderegg, L. Schweikhard, and C. F. Driscoll, AIP Conf. Proc. 606 (AIP, Melville, NY, 2002) p. 111-120. PDF file
T.B.Mitchell, J.J. Bollinger, W.M. Itano, D.H.E. Dubin, "Stick-Slip Motion of a Stressed Ion Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183001-4 (2001).
B.M. Jelenkovic, J.J. Bollinger, A.B. Newbury, T.B. Mitchell, and W.M. Itano, "A laser-cooled positron plasma," in New Directions in Antimatter Physics and Chemistry, edited by C. Surko and F. Gianturco (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 2001) p. 1-20. PDF file
R. H. Baughman, S. O. Dantas, S. Stafstrom, A. A. Zakhidov, T. B. Mitchell, and D. H. E. Dubin, "Negative Poisson's ratios for extreme states of matter," Science 288, 2018-2022 (2000).
W. M. Itano, "Crystalline plasma," in McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 2001 (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000) p. 116-118. PDF file
A.S. Newbury, B.M. Jelenkovic, J.J. Bollinger, and D.J. Wineland, "Simulation of a method for forming a laser-cooled positron plasma," Phys. Rev. A 62, 023405 (2000).
J.J. Bollinger, T.B. Mitchell, X.-P. Huang, W.M. Itano, J.N. Tan, B.M. Jelenkovic, and D.J. Wineland, "Crystalline order in laser-cooled, non-neutral ion plasmas," Physics of Plasmas 7, 7 (2000).
T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, X.-P. Huang, W. M. Itano, J. N. Tan, B. M. Jelenkovic, and D. J. Wineland, "Crystalline order in strongly coupled ion plasmas," in Non-Neutral Plasma Physics III, proc. Workshop on Non-Neutral Plasmas, Princeton, August 1999, edited by J. J. Bollinger, R. L. Spencer, and R. C. Davidson, AIP Conf. Proc. 498 (AIP, Melville, NY, 1999) p. 353-366.
T.B. Mitchell, J.J. Bollinger, X.-P. Huang, W.M. Itano, and D.H.E. Dubin, "Direct observations of structural phases in crystallized ion plasmas," Physics of Plasmas 6, 1751 (1999).
J. J. Bollinger and J. Fajans, "Conference Report" Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 18, 411-422 (1999). PDF file
T.B. Mitchell, J.J. Bollinger, D.H.E. Dubin, X.-P. Huang, W.M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998). PDF file
T.B. Mitchell, J.J. Bollinger, X.-P. Huang, and W.M. Itano, "Mode and transport studies of laser-cooled ion plasmas in a Penning trap," in Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics, edited by D.H.E. Dubin and D. Schneider, AIP Conf. Proc. 457 (AIP Press, 1999), p. 309.
J.J. Bollinger, T.B. Mitchell, X.-P. Huang, W.M. Itano, J.N. Tan, B. Jelenkovic, and D.J. Wineland, "Crystalline order in strongly coupled plasmas," in Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics, edited by D.H.E. Dubin and D. Schneider, AIP Conf. Proc. 457 (AIP Press, 1999), p. 295.
J. J. Bollinger, T. B. Mitchell, X.-P. Huang, W. M. Itano, J. N. Tan, B. M. Jelenkovic, and D. J. Wineland, "Atomic ion crystals in non-neutral plasmas," in Atomic Physics 16, proceedings of the International Conference, Windsor, Canada, August 1998, edited by W. E. Baylis and G. W. F. Drake, AIP COnf. Proc. 477 (AIP, Woodbury, NY, 1999), p. 87-99.
T.B. Mitchell, J.J. Bollinger, X.-P. Huang, and W.M. Itano, "Doppler imaging of plasma modes in a Penning trap," Optics Express 2, 314 (1998).
W.M. Itano, J.J. Bollinger, J.N. Tan, B. Jelenkovic, X.-P. Huang, and D.J. Wineland, "Bragg diffraction from crystallized ion plasmas," Science 279, 686-689 (1998).
X.-P. Huang, J.J. Bollinger, T.B. Mitchell, W.M. Itano, and D.H.E. Dubin, "Precise control of the global rotation of strongly coupled ion plasmas in a Penning trap," Phys. Plasmas. 5, 1656 (1998).
X.-P. Huang, J.J. Bollinger, T.B. Mitchell, and W.M. Itano, "Phase-locked rotation of crystallized non-neutral plasmas by rotating electric fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 73-76 (1998).
X.-P. Huang, J. J. Bollinger, W. M. Itano, J. N. Tan, B. Jelenkovic, T. B. Mitchell, and D. J. Wineland, "Formation and control of Coulomb crystals in trapped ion plasmas," in Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems, edited by Kalman et al. (Plenum, New York, 1998), p. 429-432.
X.-P. Huang, J. J. Bollinger, W. M. Itano, J. N. Tan, B. Jelenkovic, T. B. Mitchell, and D. J. Wineland, "Structure and control of Coulomb crystals in a Penning trap," Hyperfine Interactions 115, 41-45 (1998).
J.N. Tan, J.J. Bollinger, B. Jelenkovic, W.M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Observation of long-range order in trapped ion plasmas by Bragg scattering," Proc. International Conf. on the Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasmas, Binz/Rügen, Germany, Sept. 11-15, 1995 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996) pp. 387-396.
J.N. Tan, J.J. Bollinger, B. Jelenkovic, and D.J. Wineland, "Long-range order in laser-cooled, atomic-ion Wigner crystals observed by Bragg scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4198-4201 (1995). PDF file
J. N. Tan, J.J. Bollinger, and D.J. Wineland, "Minimizing time dilation in Penning trap ion clocks," Proc. Fifth Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Woods Hole, MA, Oct. 16-19, pp.427-429 (1995).
J.N. Tan, J.J. Bollinger, and D.J. Wineland, "Minimizing the time-dilation shift in Penning trap atomic clocks," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 144-147 (1995).
J. J. Bollinger, J. N. Tan, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and D. H. E. Dubin, "Nonneutral ion plasmas and crystals in Penning traps," Physica Scripta T59, 352-359 (1995). PDF file
J.J. Bollinger, D.J. Wineland, and D.H.E. Dubin, "Non-neutral ion plasmas and crystals, laser cooling, and atomic clocks," Phys. Plasmas 1, 1403-1414 (1994). PDF file
C.S. Weimer, F.L. Moore, and D.J. Wineland, "High-Order Multipole Excitation of a Bound Electron," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2553-2556 (1993).
J. J. Bollinger, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, C. S. Weimer, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental results on normal modes in cold, pure ion plasmas," in Strongly Coupled Plasma Physics, Proceedings of the 1992 Conference on the Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasmas, edited by H. M. Van Horn and S. Ichimaru (Univ. Rochester Press, Rochester, 1993), p. 393-398.
J. J. Bollinger, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Low order modes of an ion cloud in a Penning trap," Phys. Scripta 46, 282-284 (1992).
D.J. Heinzen, J.J. Bollinger, F.L. Moore, W.M. Itano, and D.J. Wineland, "Rotational Equilibria and Low-Order Modes of a Non-Neutral Ion Plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66,16 , 2080-2083 (1991). PDF file
J.J. Bollinger and D.J. Wineland, "Microplasmas," Sci. Am.262, 124-130 (January 1990). PDF file
J. J. Bollinger, S. L. Gilbert, D. J. Heinzen, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Observations of correlations in finite, strongly coupled ion plasmas," in Strongly Coupled Plasma Physics, proceedings of the Yamada Conference XXIV, Lake Yamanaka, Japan, 1989, edited by S. Ichimaru (Elsevier Science Publishers B. V. /Yamada Science Foundation, 1990), pp. 177-187. PDF file
S. L. Gilbert, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Liquid and solid phases of laser cooled ions," in Atomic Physics 11, proceedings of the International Conference, Paris, 1988, edited by S. Haroche, J. C. Gay, and G. Grynberg (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), pp. 261-275. PDF file
D.J. Wineland, W.M. Itano, J.C. Bergquist, S.L. Gilbert, J.J. Bollinger, and F.G. Ascarrunz, "Liquid and Solid Ion Plasmas," Non-neutral Plasma Physics, C.W. Roberson and C.F. Driscoll, eds. (A.I.P. Conf. Proc. 175), pp. 93-110 (1989). PDF file
J. J. Bollinger, S. L. Gilbert, and D.J. Wineland, "Observation of shell structures with ions stored in traps," Proc. Workshop on Crystalline Ion Beams, Wertheim/M, October 4-7 1988, edited by R. W. Hasse, I. Hofmann, and D. Liesen (GSI Darmstadt, 1989), pp. 231-240. PDF file
W.M. Itano, L.R. Brewer, D.J. Larson, and D.J. Wineland, "Perpendicular Laser Cooling of Ion Plasmas in a Penning Trap," Phys. Rev. A 38, 5698-5706 (1988). PDF file
L.R. Brewer, J.D. Prestage, J.J. Bollinger, W.M. Itano, D.J. Larson, and D.J. Wineland, "Static Properties of a Non-neutral ^{9}Be^{+} Ion Plasma," Phys. Rev. A 38, 859-873 (1988). PDF file
S.L. Gilbert, J.J. Bollinger, and D.J. Wineland, "Shell-Structure Phase of Magnetically Confined Strongly Coupled Plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2022-2025 (1988). PDF file
J.J. Bollinger, L.R. Brewer, J.C. Bergquist, W.M. Itano, D.J. Larson, S.L. Gilbert, and D.J. Wineland, "Ion Trapping Techniques: Laser Cooling and Sympathetic Cooling," Proc. Workshop on Intense Positron Beams, Idaho Falls, ID, June 18-19, pp. 63-73 (1987). PDF file
D.J. Larson, J.C. Bergquist, J.J. Bollinger, W.M. Itano, and D.J. Wineland, "Sympathetic Cooling of Trapped Ions: A Laser Cooled Two Species Nonneutral Ion Plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 70-73 (1986). PDF file
D.J. Wineland, J.J. Bollinger, W.M. Itano, J.D. Prestage, "Angular Momentum of Trapped Atomic Particles," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 2, 1721-1730 (1985). PDF file
J.J. Bollinger and D. J. Wineland, "Strongly Coupled Nonneutral Ion Plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 348-351 (1984). PDF file
J.J. Bollinger, D.J. Wineland, W.M. Itano, and J.S. Wells, "Precision Measurements of Laser Cooled ^{9}Be^{+} Ions," Laser Spectroscopy VI, ed. by H.P. Weber and W.Luthy, (Springer Verlag) 1983, pp. 168-172 (1983). PDF file
D.J. Wineland, J.J. Bollinger, and W.M. Itano, "Laser-Fluorescence Mass Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 628-631 (1983). PDF file