Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

NIST-on-a-Chip: Microfluidics - Common Platform for Multi-Modal Measurements


The integration of multiple measurement modalities into a single chip or chip-based package would enable accurate, multi-parameter data to be obtained on a wide variety of complex fluids. The choice of sensors, and the ability to integrate such sensors with stable and controllable flow and temperature, can depend on the details of the specific fluid system under investigation.

microfluidic-microelectronic test chip
Schematic diagram of connectorized microfluidic-microelectronic test chip. The package includes four high-frequency (>40 GHz) electrical inputs, four fluidic inputs, and features integrated temperature control.

Eventually, many kinds of microfluidic sensors will be embedded in the same sorts of compact and robust packages for deployment by users. To encourage comparisons of measurements between devices by different manufacturers, and to enable interoperability of components, NIST is creating prototypes for a common microfluidic platform.

The platform will accommodate a variety of sensors as well as providing a dimensional model for sensor designers and fabricators to use so that their devices will be able to work with successive iterations of the common platform. A common platform will also be essential in order to test the reliability, interchangeability, and long-term stability of sensors.

Major Activities

microfluidic-microelectronic package schematic
Top view of microfluidic-microelectronic package schematic, illustrating optical access to microfluidic channels to enable multimodal characterization of samples in microfluidic channels.
Platform for Optical and Electrical Microfluidics (POEM)

Our initial version of an integrated platform for optical and electrical microfluidics (Poem-1) is realized with a microfluidic chip bonded to a printed-circuit board, and contains 4 fluidic input-outputs, 4 high-frequency (40 GHz) electronic input-outputs, and optical microscope access. It features integrated thermal control and integrated direct-current leads for additional measurements. The platform is intended to be used in order to quantify sensitive dielectric measurements of fluids, based on microwave interferometry, for studying protein and DNA interactions as a function of temperature. Quantifying stability and accuracy of the dielectric measurements, and correlating dielectric results with optical observations, are goals for the first implementation of packaged, high-frequency devices.

On-Chip Interfaces

NIST scientists are also active in efforts to standardize the fluidic, electrical, and optical interfaces between the microfluidic devices and the macroscale. With standardized connections, one can foresee chip-scale modules that measure individual physical parameters (flow, density, viscosity, pressure, etc.) that can be plugged in to each other in various combinations to address different applications.


Created January 13, 2017, Updated November 15, 2019