Cryogenics is the science that addresses the production and effects of very low temperatures. The word originates from the Greek words 'kryos' meaning "frost" and 'genic' meaning "to produce." Under such a definition it could be used to include all temperatures below the freezing point of water (0 C). However, Prof. Kamerlingh Onnes of the University of Leiden in the Netherlands first used the word in 1894 to describe the art and science of producing much lower temperatures.
The mission of the Cryogenic Technologies Project at NIST is to conduct research in cryogenics, working with industry and other government agencies in the development of new and/or improved processes and products involving cryogenic technologies.