Bill's employment at NBS (now NIST) began with the analysis of gases: pure gases, gas mixtures, and gaseous products of various reactions. Both classical methods and newer instrumental techniques were used. The need for better quantification lead to the development of gas mixture calibration standards; first by using partial pressure additions then later to the more accurate gravimetric procedure. Bill developed the first gravimetric primary gas standards at NBS. The Clean Air Act of 1990 required that regulated gaseous species be monitored and that their measurement be traceable to NBS. This required the development of the Gas Mixtures SRM Program with the gravimetrically prepared calibration standards being the foundation of the NBS certification system. The need for traceable gas standards was too great for the SRM program alone so Bill was instrumental in developing the gas mixture NTRM program along with input from US/EPA and the specialty gas industry. Bill has actively been involved with the certification of over 60 SRMs and coordinating the certification of over 500 NTRMs.
Membership and Professional Activities: