The past decades have seen an explosion of new materials and new applications that did not exist before their discovery. These functional materials now underpin many aspects of modern technology. Understanding and quantifying the chemical and physical processes that can produce functional materials is one key to maintaining the competitiveness of U.S. firms. NIST is and continues to be involved in advancing measurement science aimed at improving manufacturing capabilities and fostering continued innovation. At present, that work includes diagnostics for chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition, which are processes used extensively by the semiconductor industry for generating thin film materials used in modern microelectronics.