We have measured stepwise-approximated sine waves generated by a Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS) with several different output configurations. These data are analyzed to characterize the dominant error mechanisms for rms applications, such as ac-dc difference measurements of thermal voltage converters (TVC). We present detailed explanations of the fundamental causes and consequences of systematic errors that arise from transitions, and consider overall uncertainties for PJVS ac metrology using this synthesis method. We show that these timing-related errors are sufficient to make this waveform synthesis approach impractical for rms audio-frequency applications. The implications of providing the load current required by low input impedance devices such as TVC's are also discussed.
Citation: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Pub Type: Journals
Digital-analog conversion, Josephson arrays, voltage standards, superconductor-normal-superconductor devices