Over the past three decades, the quantum behavior of superconducting Josephson junctions were exploited to dramatically improve the accuracy of dc voltage measurements. Within the past couple years, new superconducting devices, circuits, systems and measurement techniques have been developed that have begun to impact ac voltage applications. This article reviews the capabilities and measurement techniques of three unique quantum-based systems and summarizes their use as accurate dc and ac references for voltage metrology and as low-distortion arbitrary-waveform sources for the characterization of stability and nonlinearities in analog and digital electronics.
Citation: IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine
Pub Type: Journals
Digital-analog conversion, Josephson arrays, Quantization, Signal synthesis, Standards, Superconductor-normal-superconductor devices, Voltage measurement, Power Measurement, Thermometry, Johnson Noise