The features of an enhanced model for egress from fires in non-residential occupancies is presented along with a users manual describing the use of the model. The enhancements to the model include analysis of locations of safety, smoke blockages, disabled occupants, and delays in egress. Comparisons with some available field measurements is presented. Further analysis of human behavior during a fire in the World Trade Center is presented. The analysis shows that there was a significant difference in perception of the severity of the fire between the two buildings of the World Trade Center. While previous human behavior studies have shown that people will move through smoke, this incident demonstrated that people will not only move through smoke, but also through worsening conditions. Implications for evacuation and training are discussed.
Citation: NISTGCR - 95-684
Pub Type: NIST Pubs
computer simulation, egress, field tests, fire models, human behavior, training, occupants, terrorists, terrorism, World Trade Center