A historical article about the origins and the development ofatomic clocks and oscillators (Part III of a IV-part series). It describes the first atomic clock experiments, early laboratory and commercial cesium clocks, and the transition from astronomical to atomic timekeeping. It also describes cesium fountain clocks, the most accurate laboratory standards being used today.
Citation: IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine
Pub Type: Journals
atomic time, cesium, clocks, frequency, time