This chapter describes metrologies developed by NIST scientists and collaborators for mechanical properties of dimensionally-constrained materials; these approaches make use of methods inherently sensitive to small volumes. Attention is focused on development and demonstration of test methods for several key forms of mechanical response ¿ elasticity, strength, and fatigue. We attempt to avoid excessive duplication of discussion contained in other chapters. Emphasis is placed on structures that are volume-constrained, with one or more dimensions less than 1 ¿m, and often less than 100 nm. The first metrology is contact-resonance atomic force microscopy (AFM), wherein the mechanical resonance properties of an AFM cantilever in contact with a thin-film or nanoparticle-based specimen are shown to depend sensitively on the elastic properties of a small volume of material beneath the tip. The second metrology is microtensile testing, wherein free-standing thin-film specimens are patterned into tensile specimens by use of semiconductor fabrication methods, and force-displacement response measured. The third metrology is based on application of controlled joule heating to patterned thin films on substrates by alternating current, for the purpose of measuring fatigue and strength of thin patterned films on substrates.
Citation: Micro and nano Mechanical Testing of Materials and Devices
Publisher Info: Springer Publishing Company, New York, NY
Pub Type: Books
contact-resonance AFM, interconnect reliability, mechanical properties, microtensile testing, nanomaterials, nanostructures, thermal fatigue