Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a group of emerging technologies that create objects from the bottom-up by adding material one cross-sectional layer at a time. The AM process begins with a three-dimensional model of the object, usually created by computer-aided design (CAD) software or a scan of an existing part. Specialized software slices this model into cross-sectional layers, creating a computer file that is sent to the AM machine. The AM machine then creates the object by forming each layer via the selective placement (or forming) of material. AM systems are now becoming commonplace in industries as diverse as bio-medical, aerospace, and automotive for both prototypes and finished components. Nevertheless, there exists a striking dearth of metrology capabilities for closed loop process control and in-situ characterization of the build layers during AM processes. Opportunities thus exist in research and industrial metrology communities for development and implementation of measurement capabilities for process-structure-property relationships; closed-loop and adaptive control systems; and new sensors for fundamental build properties such as shape, precision, and surface finish. This chapter provides an overview of current AM technologies and their state of the art metrology capabilities. Conclusions are drawn about critically needed measurement capabilities and recommendations are made for possible steps forward for their development.
Citation: Focus on Metrology Research
Publisher Info: NOVA Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY
Pub Type: Book Chapters
additive manufacturing, metrology