This report reaffirms the importance of rebuilding a globally competitive, innovation-based advanced manufacturing sector in the United States. This report asserts that revitalizing and restoring manufacturing is key to the recovery of regional, state, and local economies; is essential for rebuilding the American middle-class; and is critical for creating opportunities for minorities and low-income families to increase their social and economic mobility. A public policy agenda and strategy are proposed for harnessing American manufacturing to the recovery of regional and local industrial economies hurt by globalization, technological change, government policy shifts, and other economic shocks over the past four decades. Categories: Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce, Regulatory and Policy Recommendations
The world is in the midst of a transformation in the nature of work, as smart machines, artificial intelligence, new technologies, and global competition remake how people do their jobs and pursue their careers. The Work Ahead: Machines, Skills, and U.S. Leadership in the Twenty-First Century, the report of a CFR-sponsored Independent Task Force, assesses the future of work and workers and the implications for the U.S. economy and national security. Categories: Innovation, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce, Productivity
This report explains how digitalization is transforming manufacturing globally, detailing what exactly smart manufacturing (or “Industry 4.0”) is and examining the productivity impacts that digitalized manufacturing promises to deliver. The report examines the small- to medium-sized enterprise (SME) manufacturing support programs and policies of ten nations—Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States—and provides insights countries can leverage to support the digitalization of their manufacturers. The report further examines how the development of common standards can facilitate technology adoption and proposes a typology that helps conceptualize different manufacturing production systems and strategies, showing how these need to be supported by varying digital toolsets. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Innovation, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration
This publication examines the opportunities and challenges, for business and government, associated with technologies bringing about the “next production revolution”. These include a variety of digital technologies (e.g. the Internet of Things and advanced robotics), industrial biotechnology, 3D printing, new materials and nanotechnology. Some of these technologies are already used in production, while others will be available in the near future. All are developing rapidly. As these technologies transform the production and the distribution of goods and services, they will have far-reaching consequences for productivity, skills, income distribution, well-being and the environment. The more that governments and firms understand how production could develop in the near future, the better placed they will be to address the risks and reap the benefits. Categories: Innovation, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce, Productivity
Numerous provisions in federal law are intended to support manufacturing in the United States. Almost without exception, these provisions define manufacturing as the process of physically transforming goods. These laws establish a variety of potential benefits, preferences, or penalties based on the country in which physical transformation occurs. Changes in the structure of manufacturing make it difficult to design government policies that support manufacturing-related value added and employment in the United States. Many federal laws adopted with the goal of supporting manufacturing do not take into account the increasingly blurred lines between manufacturing and other types of economic activity. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce, Supply Chain
In 2014, President Obama set out an ambitious goal to double the number of apprenticeships to 750,000 by the end of 2018, and to diversify them as well. This year the half million mark was passed. However, despite their increasing popularity and proven benefit to workers, apprenticeships are not fully understood in the United States, especially from the point of view of U.S. employers. The biggest investment in apprenticeship programs is made by businesses themselves, yet surprisingly little is known about the payoff to businesses from these investments. This study is one of a very few to examine these returns to business, and it attempts to avoid methodological issues common in the other studies. The study examines 13 businesses and intermediaries from a variety of occupations, industries, and regions and ask: What motivated them to create apprenticeships? What are the costs and benefits? And if not apprenticeships, how else would they fill their workforce needs? Categories: Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce, Productivity
Leaders across the country continue to seek ways to reenergize the American economy. To support those efforts, this report provides an update on the changing momentum and geography of America’s advanced industries sector—a group of 50 R&D- and STEM (science-technology-engineering-mathematics)-worker intensive industries the vitality of which will be essential for supporting any broadly shared prosperity in U.S. regions. This report finds that high-value economic growth in the United States is heavily reliant on just seven industries. While the advanced industries sector continues to grow overall in spite of slowing demand worldwide, three auto manufacturing and four high-tech digital services industries are now responsible for two-thirds of that growth. Trends revealed in this report support the need for federal and state-local strategies focused on boosting growth and reach. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Innovation, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce
This report discusses challenges to national laboratory partnerships and commercialization, and highlights selected DOE and national laboratory initiatives that address these challenges. Partnership and commercialization initiatives are ever evolving as laboratories increasingly experiment with new ideas and as these ideas are tested and refined. The report offers a number of recommendations that could add value to the innovative initiatives featured, and provide DOE and national laboratories with other suggestions. Categories: Innovation, Federal and Industry Collaboration
This paper is an interim report on the OECD cross-cutting project “Enabling the Next Production Revolution”. The next production revolution (NPR) project focuses on the technologies of future production, with an emphasis on manufacturing. The background is one in which major science and technology-driven changes in the production and distribution of goods and services are occurring and diffusing widely. Other developments – possibly more significant still – are on the horizon. Such changes will have far-reaching consequences for productivity, skills, income distribution, human well-being and the environment. The more fully governments understand how industrial production could develop, the better placed they will be to prepare for the risks and reap the benefits. Through judicious policy, the opportunity exists now to shape the next production revolution. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce, Productivity
The news that (manufacturing) companies in OECD economies are increasingly bringing manufacturing activities back home has attracted much attention in recent years. Headline cases of a number of large multinational companies have given increased visibility to the phenomenon of reshoring in the (economic) press, academic research and policy discussions. The debate on re-shoring is very lively, but considerable disagreement exists about how important this trend actually is. Different terms such as reshoring, back-shoring, near-shoring and onshoring are often used interchangeably and largely contribute to the confusion surrounding this new phenomenon. This paper brings together the available evidence, not in an attempt to prove who is right or wrong in the discussion - the issues raised by reshoring will most likely not be settled for quite some time - but rather to understand how important reshoring is, not only as regards its impact on individual companies but also from a more aggregate economy-wide view. The paper also discusses the phenomenon of reshoring in more detail, by unpacking the concept itself and analysing the different motivations why companies choose to reshore activities. In doing so, the paper aims to help guide the policy discussions on reshoring in light of the actions and plans that haven been taken by some governments in OECD countries. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Supply Chain
Collaborative Robotics Workshop 2015: Advantages and Challenges for Small Manufacturers – October 2015
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Engineering Laboratory (EL) and the NIST Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) partnered during 2015 to conduct the Collaborative Robotics Workshop 2015: Advantages and Challenges for Small Manufacturers. The NIST MEP and NIST EL were supported in the planning and conduct of this workshop by IMC Consulting LLC and 10 MEP Centers from 7 states. This document summarizes the Workshop, and highlights its findings and results as they are applicable to small U.S. manufacturers, to robotics manufacturers, to systems integrators, to researchers, and to MEP Centers. This document is intended to serve as a publicly available Workshop Report that has been produced by NIST MEP following an internal NIST report of the Workshop proceedings and results that was presented by NIST MEP to NIST EL in 2015. Categories: Federal and Industry Collaboration
The health of the U.S. manufacturing sector has long been of great concern to many stakeholders including Congress. The decline in manufacturing employment since the dawn of the 21st century has stimulated particular interest and various policy prescriptions. Those advocating for renewed attention on manufacturing argue that the United States is falling behind other countries across a broad set of measures and they argue that this relative decline can be mitigated or reversed by government policy. This report informs the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. Understanding which trends in manufacturing reflect factors that may be unique to the United States and which are related to broader changes in technology or consumer preferences may be helpful in formulating policies intended to aid firms or workers engaged in manufacturing activity. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Innovation, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce
"While U.S. manufacturing has been hit hard by nearly two decades of policy failures that have damaged its nternational competitiveness, it remains a vital part of the U.S. economy. The manufacturing sector employed 12 million workers in 2013, or about 8.8 percent of total U.S. employment. Manufacturing employs a higher share of workers without a college degree than the economy overall. On average, non-college-educated workers in manufacturing made 10.9 percent more than similar workers in the rest of the economy in 2012–2013. This report examines the role manufacturing plays in employment at the national, state, and congressional district levels, including the number of jobs manufacturing supports, the wages those jobs pay, and manufacturing's contribution to GDP. (This report updates an earlier EPI report but includes U.S. congressional district data for the first time.) Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce
The Myth of America's Manufacturing Renaissance: The Real State of U.S. Manufacturing - January 2015
Conditions for U.S. manufacturing are certainly better than they were a decade ago, as employment and output are both growing, albeit slowly. Despite this improvement, there is not yet evidence to support the notion of a U.S. manufacturing "renaissance." As a new ITIF report shows, the data do not support such a rosy scenario. Much of the growth since the recession's lows was just a cyclical recovery instead of real structural growth that will improve long-term conditions, and there is a strong possibility that manufacturing will once again decline once domestic demand recovers. This new report addresses and refutes many misconceptions on the state of manufacturing today. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Regulatory and Policy Recommendations
Overwhelming Support: U.S Public Opinions on the Manufacturing Industry U.S. public opinions on the manufacturing industry - December 2014
Job creation and economic prosperity continue to be important concerns for many Americans. While they are cautiously optimistic about overall economic recovery, the American public believes manufacturing is a critically important component of a strong national economy. Nonetheless, Americans still have mixed views about the future of manufacturing. The results of this year's survey — the fifth over the past six years — gauging Americans perspectives on the U.S. manufacturing industry, relative to other industries, reveal that the vast majority of Americans continue to view U.S. manufacturing as crucial to America's economic prosperity, standard of living, and national security. However, less than half believe the U.S. can compete globally in manufacturing. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce
In the conventional view, economies are static entities, changing principally only in size. But in reality, economies are constantly evolving complex ecosystems. The U.S. economy of 2014 is different, not just larger, than the economy of 2013. Understanding that we are dealing with an evolutionary rather than static economy has significant implications for the conceptualization of both economics and economic policy. This book provides an overview of evolutionary economic thought, explains the three dominant drivers of U.S. economic evolution and lays out eight key principles to guide evolutionary-based economic policy making. Categories: Federal and Industry Collaboration, Global Competitiveness, Regulatory and Policy Recommendations
A country is only as strong as its capacity to build. Managed properly, the availability of low-cost shale gas could catalyze a renaissance in U.S. manufacturing, revitalizing the chemical industry and enhancing the global competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors such as aluminum, steel, paper, glass, and food. This report summarizes and expands upon the University of Michigan-sponsored daylong Symposium "Shale Gas: A Game- Changer for American Manufacturing," held on March 28, 2014 at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. The Symposium's purpose: to explore how the shale gas boom can be used to the best advantage of U.S. manufacturing.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Innovation, Capital & Cost, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations, Sustainability
The White House report, Making in America: U.S. Manufacturing Entrepreneurship and Innovation, demonstrates how new game-changing technologies are reducing the cost, increasing the speed, and making it easier for entrepreneurs and manufacturers to translate new ideas into products Made in America. These new technologies are already having an impact, with the growth rate in manufacturing entrepreneurship at its fastest pace in over 20 years. Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Innovation, Capital & Cost, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce
Manufacturing Workforce Development Playbook: Preparing for the Manufacturing Renaissance in America - May 2014
The Manufacturing Workforce Development Playbook offers strategies and programs that have been successfully employed by industry, education and government to collaboratively solve the challenges of preparing workers for 21st century careers in manufacturing. Edited by manufacturing workforce authority Keith Campbell, with contributions from over 20 experts, this resource brings together relevant data, case studies and expert insights about educating and training operators, technicians and technologists for America's manufacturing renaissance. To view the report, registration is required. Just complete the form and instantly receive your free copy of the PDF edition. When you hit submit, you'll have a choice of "opening" or "saving" the file. Hit save and the PDF downloads directly to where ever your download folder resides. The PDF file is not e-mailed.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce,
In his 2010 State of the Union Address, President Obama announced the National Export Initiative (NEI) as part of a government-wide strategy to promote exports. During the ensuing years, as the U.S. recovered from the economic downturn in the "Great Recession," the growth in U.S. exports has been one of the major success stories in the U.S. economy. Since 2009, exports have helped pull the U.S. economy out of the devastating recession that occurred between 2007 and 2009. Exports have contributed more to the growth of gross domestic product (GDP) in this recovery than in the previous recovery; have helped support millions of high-paying jobs in the U.S.; and have been responsible for major contributions to the economic performance of many states and metropolitan areas. Moving forward, exports will continue to make important contributions to the U.S. economy and the NEI/NEXT is structured to do more to help U.S. manufacturers, farmers, workers and innovators sell Made-in-America products and services world-wide to the benefit of our economy.
Other Categories: Capital & Cost, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce, Regulatory and Policy Recommendations, Productivity
Investing in activities that support the creation and expansion of high-growth companies and jobs is at the forefront of technology-based economic development (TBED). TBED fosters a climate where new and existing companies that develop technology and continuously innovate will thrive. Understanding the trends that are affecting and influencing TBED can help guide investment priorities for practitioners and policymakers across the nation. This report includes a compilation of examples in thematic areas from across the country. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education and Workforce, Regulatory and Policy Recommendations
The manufacturing sector accounts for about a third of primary energy consumed in the United States. This sector is increasingly relied on to generate energy savings to meet efficiency targets set by states and energy utilities. While most of that effort has sought savings from large manufacturers (the 10% of establishments that account for close to 50% of energy use), more energy efficiency programs are beginning to address the needs facing small to medium-sized manufacturers (SMM). This report discusses barriers, opportunities, and solutions to designing energy efficiency programs that result in significant savings from smaller manufacturers.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations, Best Practices, Sustainability
While R&D funding isn't the sole indicator of how a nation, region or industry will perform, it certainly is a fundamental consideration among other factors like science, technology, engineering and mathematics education levels, capital markets, healthcare, infrastructure, property rights and immigration policy. Each section of this report forecasts research and development levels for 2014, closely examining the expected funding for a region or industry. There are many important projections and key findings for each country and industry under discussion.
Other Categories: Innovation, Capital & Cost, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration,Education & Workforce
The Clarion Call, A Look Back and a Path Forward provides a federal policy "report card" of actions (and lack of actions) since the Council issued a clear and concise agenda to policymakers last year, which included a road map to grow the American economy and included core principles and recommendations critical for the United States' long term economic growth and job creation. Categories: Current State of Manufacturing, Global Competitiveness, Innovation, Federal and Industry, Regulatory and Policy Recommendations
The Emerging U.S. Rail Industry: Opportunities to support American manufacturing and spur regional development - November 2013
A number of factors have come together to heighten the importance of rail transit to the U. S. economy. These same factors present new opportunities for domestic manufacturers of rail cars and equipment to benefit, however, historical and structural barriers to seizing these opportunities exist. This paper explores each of these areas in detail and makes recommendations to policy makers on how they might best support a strong and growing domestic supply chain for the rail transit industry.
Other Categories: Innovation, Capital & Cost, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration,Education & Workforce, Supply Chain
Sparking Economic Growth 2.0: Companies Created from Federally Funded University Research, Fueling American Innovation and Economic Growth - October 2013
This report focuses on how federal investment in basic scientific research stimulates the economy, specifically by creating companies. The report discusses how federal funding for this type of scientific research is in jeopardy and is on a downward trend. The report also emphasizes the importance of innovation. It references a link to a database with the profile of the companies from the report.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Innovation, Capital & Cost, Federal and Industry Collaboration
Advanced Manufacturing in the American South: An Economic Analysis Supporting Regional Development - September 2013
This report focuses on both the economic and policy analysis associated with advanced manufacturing. The following key conclusions emerge regarding state policy and advanced manufacturing: States play a central role in promoting economic development and industrialization; This is a new era of industrial development for the SGA states; State policy in support of the advanced manufacturing sector must be carefully coordinated with other public and private entities that seek to promote economic development in order to maximize returns for state residents and the business community; A strategy for fostering the growth of advanced manufacturing should be based on carefully developed strategic plans that build on SWOT assessments of state assets and needs and include quantifiable goals and objectives.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Capital & Cost, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce, Regulatory and Policy Recommendations
Global Manufacturing: Foreign Government Programs Differ in some Key Respects from those in the United States- August 2013
Over the last decade, the United States lost about one-third of its manufacturing jobs, raising concerns about U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. There may be insights to glean from government policies of similarly-situated countries, which are facing some of the same challenges of increased competition in manufacturing from developing countries. At the request of the chairman of the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) identified innovative foreign programs that support manufacturing that may help inform U.S. policy.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Innovation, Global Competitiveness, Federal & Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce, Regulatory and Policy Recommendations
This report offers observations and recommendations on how to increase small and mid-size manufacturers (SMMs) SMMs' contribution to manufacturing exports; and answers questions related to: the importance of exporting to SMMs with the greatest export growth potential, types of assistance exporters need, the importance of innovation and supply chain for growing exports, and export assistance in a a limited funding environment. The report is in support of a major joint research efforts undertaken by MEP and the U.S.Commercial Service.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Innovation, Global Competitiveness, Supply Chain
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy - December 2012
There is ongoing interest in the pace of U.S. technological advancement due to its influence on U.S. economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development. Legislative activity over the past 30 or more years has created a policy for technology development, albeit an ad hoc one. Because of the lack of consensus on the scope and direction of a national policy, Congress has taken an incremental approach aimed at creating new mechanisms to facilitate technological advancement in particular areas and making changes and improvements as necessary. This paper focuses on technology and competitiveness, the federal role in technology development, legislative initiatives, and current technology development programs.
Other Categories: Innovation, Global Competitiveness, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. This paper examines the government's various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Given the increased popularity of cooperative programs, the paper looks at questions that might be raised as to whether the programs are meeting expectations. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements.
Other Categories: Innovation, Global Competitiveness, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations
This paper focuses on technology transfer to the private sector, as well as to local and state governments, and the rationale for federal interest and involvement. Current federal efforts to promote technology transfer is also examined, as well as a look at the small business technology transfer program and patenting. At issue is whether incentives for technology transfer remain necessary, if additional legislative initiatives are needed to encourage increased technology transfer, or if the responsibility to use the available resources now rests with the private sector.
Other Categories: Innovation, Capital & Cost, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations
This paper discusses why America needs a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation. Part one of the paper makes the case for an innovation-centered national manufacturing policy. It lays out key challenges facing the U.S. manufacturing sector, advances reasons why the nation should care about manufacturing, and sets forth the rationale for an active federal role in fostering manufacturing innovation. Part two of the paper articulates five key principles that should govern the design of the NNMI. These principles include: focus on innovation challenges, support for the full innovation process, collaboration among academia, a bottom-up competitive process, managed by the federal government, and a private-public co-investment.
Other Categories: Innovation, Capital & Cost, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations
Following a relatively positive year for sales performance and expansion, middle-market manufacturers and distributors are largely optimistic about their own businesses. Yet they are grappling with a variety of challenges that include eroding confidence in economic conditions, struggles with finding a skilled workforce, and uncertainty about government legislation. According to the 2012 McGladrey Manufacturing & Distribution Monitor report, executives of midsize companies find themselves in an uncertain business landscape.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Education & Workforce, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations
Catalogues various manufacturing-related programs in the federal government with particular emphasis on four major agencies including NIST. Identifies about $700 million in federal funding for manufacturing.
Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing - July 2012
The report was prepared by the 18-member steering committee of the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP). It addresses needs in three broad categories: enabling innovation; securing the talent pipeline; improving the business climate. The recommendations include a call to establish a national network of manufacturing innovation institutes; an emphasis on investment in community college training of the advanced manufacturing workforce; an approach to evaluate platform manufacturing technologies for collaborative investment; a plan to reinvigorate the image of manufacturing in America; and proposals for trade, tax, regulatory, and energy policies that would level the global playing field for domestic manufacturers.
Other Categories: Global Competitiveness, Capital & Cost, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations
The key challenges and solutions outlined in Make: An American Manufacturing Movement appear below: 1. Challenge: Fueling Investments in the Innovation and Production Economy from Start-up to Scale-up Solution: Enact fiscal reform, transform tax laws, regulations and other structural costs to spur investment, ramp up production, capitalize growth companies, and create skilled jobs 2. Challenge: Expanding U.S. Exports, Reducing the Trade Deficit, Increasing Market Access and Responding to Foreign Governments Protecting Domestic Producers Solution: Create fair and open global markets for U.S. goods and services to reduce the trade deficit and increase exports as a percentage of GDP 3. Challenge: Harnessing the Power and Potential of American Talent to Win the Future Skills Race Solution: Prepare the Next Generation of Innovators, Researchers and Highly-Skilled Workers
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Innovation, Capital & Cost, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce,
Analyzes several competitiveness factors for manufacturers and determines that those that compete based on innovation are nearly three times more profitable than those competing on cost.
Other Categories: Current State of MFG, Global Competitiveness, Innovation, Best Practices
History has amply demonstrated that innovation in the public and private sectors is the most important key to long-term U.S. prosperity and economic competitiveness. Yet in the United States today, innovation is at risk of stalling just at a time when rising international competition is on the upswing and the U.S. economy is still reeling from a deep recession. Priorities for action start with turning three deficits—budget, investment/savings and trade—into surpluses. This will require action by the public sector—to provide tax credits for innovation and more forward-thinking trade policies, for example—and the private sector, including businesses, universities and private research firms that reward education and job skills.
Other Categories: Innovation, Capital & Cost, Global Competitiveness, Federal and Industry Collaboration, Education & Workforce, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations
The Manufacturing Mandate: A National Manufacturing Strategy to Help Rebuild and Strengthen the U.S. Manufacturing Sector - August 2010
Quick and easy read provides a consensus scan of trade associations that focuses on: Incentivize innovation and R&D; assure availability of capital; increase global competitiveness; minimize structural cost burdens; enhance collaboration; "smartforce" for talent.
Other Categories: Innovation, Capital & Cost, Global Competitiveness, Education & Workforce, Regulatory & Policy Recommendations
Looks at federal and state federal and programs and technology infrastructure through a series of questions and answers