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Author: erica kuligowski
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81. Federal Investigation of the Evacuation of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001
Jason D Averill, Dennis S Mileti, Richard D Peacock, Erica D Kuligowski, N Groner, Guylene Proulx, H Nelson
This paper presents the findings of the NIST World Trade Center Investigation describing the occupant evacuation of WTC 1 and WTC 2 on September 11, 2001. The egress system, including stairwells and elevators, is described along with the evacuation ...
82. Gender and Control in the 2001 World Trade Center Evacuation
Erica D Kuligowski
Occupants in fire emergencies in buildings are presented with multiple pieces of information and environmental cues which produce varying levels of stress for the occupant. Occupants develop behavior response strategies to decrease their level of st ...
83. What a User Should Know About Selecting an Evacuation Model
Erica D Kuligowski, Steve M.V. Gwynne
In recent years, evacuation models have been increasingly applied in an attempt to understand the outcome of emergency egress scenarios. This has been due to the introduction of performance-based codes and the availability of cost-effective, high per ...