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Author: erica kuligowski

Displaying records 31 to 40 of 86 records.
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31. After the Alarm Sounds: How We Got Here, Where We Are, and Where We Should Go
Published: 4/1/2011
Authors: Jason D Averill, Erica D Kuligowski, Richard D Peacock
Abstract: This article reviews the history of egress design and code requirements in the United States, describes the current state-of-the-art in egress design and modeling, and offers a strawman research agenda for future egress research.

32. Communicating the Emergency: Preliminary findings on the elements of an effective public warning message
Series: Technical Note (NIST TN)
Report Number: 1689
Published: 2/28/2011
Author: Erica D Kuligowski
Abstract: When an emergency occurs, it is not always sufficient to simply initiate alarm bells. Individuals may not know what the alarm bell means and, in turn, may respond inappropriately to its sound. Many buildings have installed mass notification or emerge ...

33. A Review of Building Evacuation Models, 2nd Edition
Series: Technical Note (NIST TN)
Report Number: 1680
Published: 11/1/2010
Authors: Erica D Kuligowski, Richard D Peacock, Bryan L. Hoskins
Abstract: Evacuation calculations are increasingly becoming a part of performance-based analyses to assess the level of life safety provided in buildings. In some cases, engineers are using back-of-the-envelope (hand) calculations to assess life safety, and in ...

34. Overall and Local Movement Speeds During Fire Drill Evacuations in Buildings up to 31 Stories
Series: Technical Note (NIST TN)
Report Number: 1675
Published: 9/17/2010
Authors: Richard D Peacock, Bryan L. Hoskins, Erica D Kuligowski
Abstract: The time that it takes an occupant population to reach safety when descending a stairwell during building evacuations is typically described by measureable engineering variables such as stairwell geometry, speed, density, and pre-evacuation delay. ...

35. Building Occupant Egress Data
Series: OTHER
Report Number: 4024
Published: 8/27/2010
Authors: Richard D Peacock, Erica D Kuligowski
Abstract: Data on people movement on stairs were collected from 9 office and residential building evacuations in the United States. The buildings involved in this study range from 6 stories to 62 stories in height. The data were collected by positioning vide ...

36. The Faults with Default
Published: 7/5/2010
Authors: Steve M.V. Gwynne, Erica D Kuligowski
Abstract: No abstract provided.

37. Representing Egress Behaviour in Engineering Terms
Published: 6/16/2010
Authors: Steve M.V. Gwynne, Erica D Kuligowski, Daniel Nilsson
Abstract: When using engineering tools to calculate RSET, the engineer must have sufficient expertise to identify actual human factors that will influence the outcome of an evacuation in a particular situation. The engineer must then represent these factors in ...

38. Occupant Behavior in a High-rise Office Building Fire
Series: Technical Note (NIST TN)
Report Number: 1664
Published: 6/10/2010
Authors: Erica D Kuligowski, Bryan L. Hoskins
Abstract: Survey responses from occupants involved in a 32-story high-rise building evacuation during an actual fire were collected and analyzed to study the pre-evacuation period. Multiple regression models were used to test whether specific occupant, buildi ...

39. Application Modes of Egress Simulation
Published: 2/1/2010
Authors: Steve M.V. Gwynne, Erica D Kuligowski
Abstract: The evacuation process is influenced by historical events. These can reflect previous incidents, training, and the routine use of the structure. These need to be considered during the design process as they will influence occupant behavior. In additi ...

40. The Need for Behavioral Theory in Evacuation Modeling
Published: 2/1/2010
Authors: Erica D Kuligowski, Steve M.V. Gwynne
Abstract: This paper posits the need for comprehensive theories about human behavior in fire evacuations. These would be of value in and of themselves to improve training, education, and future data collection efforts, but would also allow for a complete behav ...

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