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Publications by Dylan Williams (Topic Based)

A Prescription for THz Transistor Characterization
An on-wafer measurement tutorial narrated in Power-Point with embedded references.

 

Topics

 

Circuit Theory

  1. J. Verspecht, D.F. Williams, D. Schreurs, K.A. Remley, and M.D. McKinley, "Linearization of large-signal scattering functions," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1369-1376, April, 2005.
  2. D.F. Williams, F. Ndagijimana, K.A. Remley, J. Dunsmore, and S. Hubert, "Scattering-parameter models and representations for microwave mixers," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 53, no. 1. pp. 314-321, Jan. 2005.
  3. K. A. Remley, D. F. Williams, D. F. Schreurs, and J. Wood, "Simplifying and interpreting two-tone measurements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2576-2584, Nov. 2004.
  4. D. F. Williams, B.K. Alpert, U. Arz, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Causal characteristic impedance of planar transmission lines," IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 165-171, May, 2003.
  5. D. F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Causality and waveguide circuit theory," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 615-623, April 2001.
  6. D. F. Williams, B.K. Alpert, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski, "Causal characteristic impedance of planar transmission lines," submitted to IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques.
  7. D.F. Williams and R.C. Wittmann, "Computation of causal characteristic impedances,"2000 International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp. 1813-1816, June 11-16, 2000.  
  8. D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Causality and characteristic impedance," 54th ARFTG Conference Digest, Dec. 1-2, 1999.
  9. D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Characteristic impedance of microstrip on silicon," 8th Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 181-184, Oct. 25-27, 1999.
  10. D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "A causal microwave circuit theory and its implications," 1999 URSI General Assembly, Toronto, Canada, August 13-21, 1999.  
  11. D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Characteristic impedance, causality, and microwave circuit theory," IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects, Titisee-Neustadt, Germany, May 19-21, 1999.
  12. D. F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Characteristic impedance, power, and causality," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Lett., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 181-182, May 1999.  
  13. D. F. Williams, L. A. Hayden, and R. B. Marks, "A Complete Multimode Equivalent-Circuit Theory for Electrical Design," NIST Journal of Research, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 405-423, July-Aug. 1997.
  14. D. F. Williams and F. Olyslager, "Modal Cross Power in Quasi-TEM Transmission Lines", IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 413-415, November 1996.  
  15. D. F. Williams, "Thermal Noise in Lossy Waveguides," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 44, no. 7, July 1996.
  16. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Comments on 'Conversions Between S, Z, Y, h, ABCD, and T Parameters which are Valid for Complex Source and Load Impedances," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 914-915, April 1995.  
  17. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Reciprocity Relations in Waveguide Junctions," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1105-1110, July 1993.
  18. D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, D. K. Walker, and F. R. Clague, "Wafer Probe Transducer Efficiency," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 388-390, Oct. 1992.
  19. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "A General Waveguide Circuit Theory," Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 533-562, Sep.-Oct. 1992. (Best paper award, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory)
  20. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Reciprocity relations for on-wafer power measurement," 38th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 82-89, Dec. 1991.
  21. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "The Interpretation and Use of S-Parameters in Lossy Lines," 36th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 84-90, Nov. 1990. (Best Paper Award)

On-Wafer Measurement and Calibration

  1. D.F. Williams, P. Corson, J. Sharma, H. Krishnaswamy, W. Tai, Z. George, D. Ricketts, P. Watson, E. Dacquay, and S. Voinigescu, "Calibration-kit design for millimeter-wave silicon integrated circuits," submitted to IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech.
  2. D.F. Williams, A.C. Young, and M. Urteaga, "A prescription for sub-millimeter-wave transistor characterization," submitted to IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. and Technol.
  3. F.J. Schmuckle, R. Doerner, G.N. Phung, W.A. Heinrich, D.F. Williams, U. Arz, "Radiation, multimode propagation, and substrate modes in W-band CPW calibration," 41st European Microwave Conference, pp. 297-300, Oct. 2011. (Winner European Microwave Prize)
  4. D.F. Williams, C.M. Wang, and U. Arz, "An optimal vector-network-analyzer calibration algorithm," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2391-2401, Dec. 2003.
  5. D.F. Williams, C.M. Wang, and U. Arz, "An optimal multiline TRL calibration algorithm," 2003 Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 1819-1822, June 10-12, 2003.
  6. U. Arz and D.F. Williams, "Applications of calibration comparison in on-wafer measurement," URSI-GA 2002, Aug. 17-24, 2002.
  7. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, and H. Grabinski, "Characteristic impedance measurement of planar transmission lines," URSI-GA 2002, Aug. 17-24, 2002.
  8. U. Arz, H.C. Reader, P. Kabos, D.F. Williams, "Wideband Frequency-Domain Characterization of High-Impedance Probes," 58th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 117-124, Nov. 29-30, 2001.
  9. D.F. Williams, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, "Characteristic-Impedance Measurement Error on Lossy Substrates," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 299-301, July 2001.
  10. D.K. Walker, R.F. Kaiser, D.F. Williams, and K.J. Coakley, "Lumped-element models for high-frequency calibration,"56th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 89-92, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000.
  11. D.F. Williams, A.C. Byers, V.C. Tyree, D.K. Walker, J.J. Ou, X. Jin, M. Piket-May, and C. Hu, "Contact-pad design for high-frequency silicon measurements," 9th Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 131-134, Oct. 23-25, 2000.
  12. W. Waitr, D.K. Walker, and D.F. Williams, "Coplanar-waveguide-to-microstrip-transition model,"2000 International Microwave Symposium Digest, June 11-16, 2000.
  13. D. F. Williams and D. K. Walker, "Lumped-element impedance standards," 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 91-93, June 12, 1998.  
  14. D. K. Walker and D. F. Williams, "Comparison of SOLR and TRL calibrations," 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 83-87, June 12, 1998.  
  15. D. F. Williams and D. Walker, "Series-Resistor Calibration," 50th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 131-137, Dec. 4-5, 1997.
  16. D. Walker and D.F. Williams, "Compensation for Geometrical Variation in Coplanar Waveguide Probe-tip Calibration," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 97-99, April 1997.
  17. D.C. DeGroot, D.K. Walker, and R.B. Marks, "Impedance mismatch effects on propagation constant measurements," 5th EPEP Conference, pp. 141-143, Oct. 28-30, 1996.  
  18. D. F. Williams, J. M. Belquin, G. Dambrine, and R. Fenton, "On-Wafer Measurement at Millimeter Wave Frequencies", 1996 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest, vol. 3, pp. 1683-1686, June 17-21, 1996.
  19. D. F. Williams and J. B. Schappacher, "Line-Reflect-Match Calibrations with Nonideal Microstrip Standards," 46th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 35-38, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 1995.  
  20. J. A. Jargon, R. B. Marks, and D. F. Williams, "Coaxial Line-Reflect-Match Calibration," Proc. of the Asia-Pacific Microwave Conf., Oct. 1995.  
  21. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "LRM Probe-Tip Calibrations using Nonideal Standards," IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 466-469, Feb. 1995.
  22. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Compensation for Substrate Permittivity in Probe-Tip Calibration," 44th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 20-30, Dec. 1994.
  23. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "On-Wafer Impedance Measurement on Lossy Substrates," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 175-176, June 1994.  
  24. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "LRM Probe-Tip Calibrations with Imperfect Resistors and Lossy Lines," 42nd ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 32-36, Dec. 1993. (Best Paper Award)
  25. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Calibrating On-Wafer Probes to the Probe Tips," 40th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 136-143, Dec. 1992.
  26. D. K. Walker, D. F. Williams, and J. M. Morgan, "Planar Resistors for Probe Station Calibration," 40th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 1-9, Dec. 1992.
  27. D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, D. K. Walker, and F. R. Clague, "Wafer Probe Transducer Efficiency," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 388-390, Oct. 1992.
  28. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "A General Waveguide Circuit Theory," Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 533-562, Sep.-Oct. 1992. (Best paper award, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory)
  29. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Traceability for on-wafer MMIC measurements," Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 371-372, June 1992.
  30. D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and A. Davidson, "Comparison of On-Wafer Calibrations," 38th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 68-81, Dec. 1991.
  31. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Reciprocity relations for on-wafer power measurement," 38th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 82-89, Dec. 1991.
  32. R. Furlow, R. Y. Shimoda, D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and K. C. Gupta, "Benchmark for the Validation of Microwave CAD Software," 38th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 97-106, Dec. 1991.
  33. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Transmission Line Capacitance Measurement," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 243-245, Sept. 1991.  
  34. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Characteristic Impedance Determination using Propagation Constant Measurement," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 141-143, June 1991.
  35. T. H. Miers, A. Cangellaris, D. Williams, and R. Marks, "Anomalies Observed in Wafer Level Microwave Testing," 1991 International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp. 1121-1124, June 1991.
  36. D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and K. R. Phillips, "Translate LRL and LRM calibrations," Microwaves and RF, vo. 30, pp. 78-84, Feb. 1991.  
  37. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "The Interpretation and Use of S-Parameters in Lossy Lines," 36th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 84-90, Nov. 1990. (Best Paper Award)
  38. D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, K. Phillips, and T. Miers "Progress toward MMIC on-wafer standards," 36th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 73-83, Nov. 1990.
  39. K. Phillips and D. Williams, "MMIC Package Characterization with Active Loads," 36th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 64-72, Nov. 1990.
  40. D. F. Williams, "De-embedding and unterminating microwave test fixtures with nonlinear least squares," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 787-791, June 1990.
  41. D. F. Williams and T. H. Miers, "De-embedding Coplanar Probes with Planar Distributed Standards," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques 36, pp. 1876-1880, Dec. 1988.
  42. D. F. Williams and T. H. Miers, "A Coplanar Probe to Microstrip Transition," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques 36, pp. 1219-1223, July 1988.

Calibration Accuracy and Verification

  1. D.F. Williams, A.C. Young, and M. Urteaga, "A prescription for sub-millimeter-wave transistor characterization," submitted to IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. and Technol.
  2. D.F. Williams, "Comparison of sub-millimeter-wave scattering-parameter calibrations with imperfect electrical ports," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science and Technol., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 144-152, Jan. 2012.
  3. D.F. Williams, K.A. Remley, J.M. Gering, G.S. Lyons, C. Lineberry, G.S. Aivazian, "Comparison of large-signal-network-analyzer calibrations," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 118-120, Feb. 2010.
  4. K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, D. Schreurs, M. Myslinski, "Measurement bandwidth extension using multisine signals: Propagation of error," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 458-467, Feb. 2010.
  5. D.F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, D. LeGolvan and R. Ginley, "Electronic vector-network-analyzer verification," IEEE Microwave Magazine, pp. 118-123, Oct. 2009.
  6. Hale, P.D., Williams, D.F., Dienstfrey, A., Wang, J., Jargon, J., Humphreys, D., Harper, M., Fuser, H., Bieler, M., "Traceability of high-speed electrical waveforms at NIST, NPL, and PTB," Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 522-523, 2012.
  7. Jargon, J.A., Williams, D.F., Wallis, T.M., LeGolvan, D.X., Hale, P.D., "Establishing traceability of an electronic calibration unit using the NIST Microwave Uncertainty Framework," 2012 79th ARFTG Microwave Measurements Conference, pp. 1-5, June 2012.
  8. D.F. Williams, "Rectangular-waveguide vector-network-analyzer calibrations with imperfect test ports," 76th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Symposium, pp. 1-8, Dec. 2010. (winner Best Paper Award)
  9. A. Lewandowski, W. Waitr, D. Williams, "Multi-frequency approach to vector-network-analyzer scattering-parameter measurements," 2010 European Microwave Conference, pp. 260-263, 28-30 Sept. 2010.
  10. D.F. Williams, "500 GHz-750 GHz rectangular-waveguide vector-network-analyzer calibrations," IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science and Technol., 2011.
  11. A. Lewandowski, D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, C. M. Wang, and A. Dienstfrey, "Covariance-Matrix-Based Vector-Network-Analyzer Uncertainty Analysis for Time-and Frequency-Domain Measurements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 1877-1886, July 2010. 
  12. D.F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, D. LeGolvan, R. Ginley, C.M. Wang and J. Splett, "Use of Electronic Calibration Units for Vector-Network-Analyzer Verification," 74th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference, Boulder, Colorado, Dec. 1-4, 2009.
  13. A. Lewandowski and D.F. Williams, "Stochastic modeling of coaxial-connector repeatability errors," 74th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference, Boulder, Colorado, Dec. 1-4, 2009.D.F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, D. LeGolvan and R. Ginley, "Electronic vector-network-analyzer verification," IEEE Microwave Magazine, pp. 118-123, Oct. 2009. 
  14. C.M. Wang, P.D. Hale and D.F. Williams, "Uncertainty of timebase corrections," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 58, no. 10, pp 3468-3472, Oct. 2009.
  15. A. Lewandowski and D.F. Williams, "Characterization and modeling of random vector network analyzer measurement errors," 17th International Conf. on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications, 19-21 May, 2008.
  16. P. D. Hale, C. M. Wang, D. F. Williams, K. A. Remley, and J. Wepman, "Compensation of random and systematic timing errors in sampling oscilloscopes," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 55, no. 6. pp. 2146-2154, Dec. 2006.
  17. D. F. Williams, H. Khenissi, F. Ndagijimana, K. A. Remley, J. P. Dunsmore, P. D. Hale, C. M. Wang, and T. S. Clement, "Sampling-Oscilloscope Measurement of a Microwave Mixer with Single-Digit Phase Accuracy," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1210-1217, March 2006.  
  18. D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, "Covariance-Based Uncertainty Analysis of the NIST Electro-optic Sampling System," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 481-491, Jan. 2006.
  19. D.F. Williams, C.M. Wang, and U. Arz, "An optimal vector-network-analyzer calibration algorithm," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2391-2401, Dec. 2003.
  20. D.F. Williams, C.M. Wang, and U. Arz, "An optimal multiline TRL calibration algorithm," 2003 Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 1819-1822, June 10-12, 2003.
  21. K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, Dominique Schreurs, Giovanni Loglio, and Alessandro Cidronali, "Phase detrending for measured multisine signals," 61st ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference Digest, pp. 73-83, June 13, 2003. (ARFTG best paper award)
  22. U. Arz and D.F. Williams, "Applications of calibration comparison in on-wafer measurement," URSI-GA 2002, Aug. 17-24, 2002.
  23. U. Arz, H.C. Reader, P. Kabos, D.F. Williams, "Wideband Frequency-Domain Characterization of High-Impedance Probes," 58th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 117-124, Nov. 29-30, 2001.
  24. D.F. Williams, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, "Characteristic-Impedance Measurement Error on Lossy Substrates," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 299-301, July 2001.
  25. D. F. Williams and K.A. Remley, "Analytic sampling-circuit model," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1013-1019, June 2001.  
  26. K.A. Remley, D. F. Williams, D.C. DeGroot, J. Verspecht, and J. Kerley, "Effects of nonlinear diode junction capacitance on the nose-to-nose calibration," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 196-198, May 2001.
  27. D.K. Walker, R.F. Kaiser, D.F. Williams, and K.J. Coakley, "Lumped-element models for high-frequency calibration,"56th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 89-92, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000.
  28. K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, and D.C. DeGroot, "Realistic sampling-circuit model for a nose-to-nose simulation,"2000 International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp. 1473-1476, June 11-16, 2000.
  29. D.F. Williams, K.A. Remley, and D.C. DeGroot, "Nose-to-Nose Response of a 20-GHz Sampling Circuit," 54th ARFTG Conference Digest, Dec. 1-2, 1999.
  30. R.F. Kaiser and D.F. Williams, "Sources of Error in Coplanar-Waveguide TRL Calibrations," 54th ARFTG Conference Digest, Dec. 1-2, 1999.
  31. D.F. Williams and D.K. Walker, "0.1-10 GHz CMOS Voltage Standard," IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects, Titisee-Neustadt, Germany, May 19-21, 1999.  
  32. D. F. Williams, "High frequency limitations of the JEDEC 123 guideline," 7th Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 54-57, Oct. 26-28, 1998.
  33. D. F. Williams and D. K. Walker, "Lumped-element impedance standards," 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 91-93, June 12, 1998.  
  34. D. K. Walker and D. F. Williams, "Comparison of SOLR and TRL calibrations," 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 83-87, June 12, 1998.  
  35. R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, and D. K. Rytting, "Accuracy of Lumped-Element Calibrations for Four-Sampler Vector Network Analyzers," 1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest, pp. 1487-1490, June 9-11, 1998.
  36. D. F. Williams, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski "Accurate Characteristic Impedance Measurement on Silicon," 1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest, pp. 1917-1920, June 9-11, 1998.
  37. D. C. DeGroot, R. B. Marks, and J. A. Jargon, "A Method for Comparing Vector Network Analyzers," 50th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 107-114, Portland, OR, Dec. 1997.  
  38. D. Walker and D.F. Williams, "Compensation for Geometrical Variation in Coplanar Waveguide Probe-tip Calibration," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 97-99, April 1997.
  39. R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, and J. R. Juroshek, "Calibration Comparison Method for Vector Network Analyzers," 48th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 38-45, Clearwater, FL, Dec. 1996.
  40. D.C. DeGroot, D.K. Walker, and R.B. Marks, "Impedance mismatch effects on propagation constant measurements," 5th EPEP Conference, pp. 141-143, Oct. 28-30, 1996.  
  41. D. F. Williams, J. M. Belquin, G. Dambrine, and R. Fenton, "On-Wafer Measurement at Millimeter Wave Frequencies", 1996 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest, vol. 3, pp. 1683-1686, June 17-21, 1996.
  42. D. F. Williams and J. B. Schappacher, "Line-Reflect-Match Calibrations with Nonideal Microstrip Standards," 46th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 35-38, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 1995.  
  43. J. A. Jargon and R. B. Marks, "Two-Tier Multiline TRL for Calibration of Low-Cost Network Analyzers," 46th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 1-8, Scottsdale, AZ, Nov.-Dec. 1995.
  44. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "LRM Probe-Tip Calibrations using Nonideal Standards," IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 466-469, Feb. 1995.
  45. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Compensation for Substrate Permittivity in Probe-Tip Calibration," 44th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 20-30, Dec. 1994.
  46. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "On-Wafer Impedance Measurement on Lossy Substrates," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 175-176, June 1994.  
  47. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Verification of Commercial Probe-Tip Calibrations," 42nd ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 37-44, Dec. 1993.
  48. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "LRM Probe-Tip Calibrations with Imperfect Resistors and Lossy Lines," 42nd ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 32-36, Dec. 1993. (Best Paper Award)
  49. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Calibrating On-Wafer Probes to the Probe Tips," 40th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 136-143, Dec. 1992.
  50. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Verification of scattering parameter measurements," Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 371-372, June 1992.
  51. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Traceability for on-wafer MMIC measurements," Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 371-372, June 1992.
  52. D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and A. Davidson, "Comparison of On-Wafer Calibrations," 38th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 68-81, Dec. 1991.
  53. R. Furlow, R. Y. Shimoda, D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and K. C. Gupta, "Benchmark for the Validation of Microwave CAD Software," 38th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 97-106, Dec. 1991.
  54. D. F. Williams, "De-embedding and unterminating microwave test fixtures with nonlinear least squares," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 787-791, June 1990.

Planar Transmission Line Characterization

  1. D.F. Williams, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, "Characteristic-Impedance Measurement Error on Lossy Substrates," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 299-301, July 2001.
  2. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, H. Grabinski, "High-Frequency Behavior of Coupled CMOS Interconnects Built in Different Metallization Layers,"56th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 32-37, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000.
  3. D.F. Williams and B.K. Alpert, "Characteristic impedance of microstrip on silicon," 8th Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging.
  4. H. Grabinski, U. Arz, D. F. Williams, "Accurate Experimental Characterization of On-Chip Interconnects," 1999 URSI General Assembly, Toronto, Canada, August 13-21, 1999.
  5. H. Grabinski, U. Arz, D. F. Williams, "Accurate Experimental Characterization of On-Chip Interconnects," 1999 URSI General Assembly, Toronto, Canada, August 13-21, 1999.
  6. D. F. Williams, "Metal-insulator-silicon transmission lines," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 176-181, Feb. 1999.  
  7. D. F. Williams, "Metal-insulator-silicon transmission line model," 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 65-71, June 12, 1998.
  8. D. F. Williams, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski "Accurate Characteristic Impedance Measurement on Silicon," 1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest, pp. 1917-1920, June 9-11, 1998.
  9. V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. Zaghloul, "Characterization of Broad-Band Transmission for Coplanar Waveguides on CMOS Silicon Substrates," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 46, pp. 632-640, May 1998.
  10. D. F. Williams, M. D. Janezic, A. Ralston, S. List, "Quasi-TEM model for coplanar waveguide on silicon," 1997 EPEP Conference Digest, pp. 225-228, Oct. 27-29, 1997.  
  11. D. F. Williams, J.-M. Belquin, A. Spisser, A. Cappy, and D. Dambrine, "Characterization of coplanar waveguide on epitaxial layers," Electronics Letters, vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 1468-1469, Aug. 1997.
  12. M. D. Janezic and D. F. Williams, "Permittivity Characterization from Transmission-Line Measurement," IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest, vol. 3, pp. 1343-1345, June 10-12, 1997.
  13. D.C. DeGroot, D.K. Walker, and R.B. Marks, "Impedance mismatch effects on propagation constant measurements," 5th EPEP Conference, pp. 141-143, Oct. 28-30, 1996.  
  14. D. F. Williams, J. M. Belquin, G. Dambrine, and R. Fenton, "On-Wafer Measurement at Millimeter Wave Frequencies", 1996 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest, vol. 3, pp. 1683-1686, June 17-21, 1996.
  15. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Electrical characterization methods for high-speed interconnections," International Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging, vol. 18, pp. 207-216, 1995.
  16. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Accurate electrical characterization of high-speed interconnections," Proceedings, 1994 International Symposium on Microelectronics, pp. 96-101, Nov. 1994. (Best Paper of session Award)
  17. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "On-Wafer Impedance Measurement on Lossy Substrates," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 175-176, June 1994.  
  18. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Microwave Characterization of Printed Circuit Transmission Lines," NEPCON East, pp. 520-527, June 1994.  
  19. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Accurate Transmission Line Characterization," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 247-249, Aug. 1993.
  20. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Interconnection Transmission Line Parameter Characterization," 40th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 88-95, Dec. 1992.
  21. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Accurate Experimental Characterization of Interconnects: A Discussion of 'Experimental Electrical Characterization of Interconnects and Discontinuities in High-Speed Digital Systems'," IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 601-602, Aug. 1992.
  22. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Comments on 'Characterization of resistive transmission lines by short pulse propagation'," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 346, Aug. 1992.  
  23. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Frequency-Dependent Transmission Line Parameters'," IEEE Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 125-127, Apr. 1992.
  24. D. F. Williams, R. B. Marks, and A. Davidson, "Comparison of On-Wafer Calibrations," 38th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 68-81, Dec. 1991.
  25. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Transmission Line Capacitance Measurement," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 243-245, Sept. 1991.  
  26. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Characteristic Impedance Determination using Propagation Constant Measurement," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 141-143, June 1991.

Multiconductor Transmission Lines

  1. P. Kabos, U. Arz, and D.F. Williams, "Multiport investigation of the coupling of high-impedance probes, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 510-512, Nov. 2004.
  2. D.K. Walker, D.F. Williams, A. Padilla, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski, "Four-Port Microwave Measurement System Speeds On-Wafer Calibration and Test," Microwave Journal, pp. 144-150, March 2001.
  3. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, H. Grabinski, "High-Frequency Behavior of Coupled CMOS Interconnects Built in Different Metallization Layers,"56th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 32-37, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000.
  4. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Accurate electrical measurement of coupled lines on lossy silicon," 9th Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 181-184, Oct. 23-25, 2000.  
  5. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Asymmetric Coupled CMOS Lines: An Experimental Study," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 48, no. 12, Dec. 2000.
  6. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, J.E. Rogers, M. Rudack, D. Treytnar, and H. Grabinski, "Characterization of Asymmetric Coupled CMOS Lines,"2000 International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp. 609-702, June 11-16, 2000.  
  7. D. F. Williams, J. E. Rogers, and C. L. Holloway, "Multiconductor transmission line characterization: representations, approximations, and accuracy," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 403-409, April 1999.
  8. D. F. Williams and D. K. Walker, "In-line multiport calibration," 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 88-90, June 12, 1998.
  9. D. F. Williams, L. A. Hayden, and R. B. Marks, "A Complete Multimode Equivalent-Circuit Theory for Electrical Design," NIST Journal of Research, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 405-423, July-Aug. 1997.
  10. D. F. Williams, "Embedded multiconductor transmission line characterization," IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest, vol. 3, pp. 1773-1776, June 10-12, 1997.
  11. D. F. Williams, "Multiconductor Transmission Line Characterization," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology-Part B, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 129-132, May 1997.
  12. D. F. Williams, "Calibration in Multiconductor Transmission Lines," 48th ARFTG Conference Digest (Orlando, FL), pp. 46-53, Dec. 4-6, 1996.
  13. D. F. Williams and F. Olyslager, "Modal Cross Power in Quasi-TEM Transmission Lines", IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 413-415, November 1996.
  14. D. F. Williams, "Thermal Noise in Lossy Waveguides," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 44, no. 7, July 1996.
     
     

Electronic Packaging Characterization

  1. A. Louh, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and A.Weisshaar, "Broadband impedance parameters of assymetric coupled CMOS interconnects: new closed-form expressions and comparison with measurements," 7th IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects., Siena, Italy, May 11-14, 2003.
  2. U. Arz, P. Kabos, and D.F. Williams, "Measureing the invasiveness of high-impedance probes," 7th IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects., Siena, Italy, May 11-14, 2003.
  3. P. Kabos, H.C. Reader, U. Arz, and D.F. Williams, "Calibrated waveform measurement with high-impedance probes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 530-535, February 2003.
  4. M.D. Janezic, D.F. Williams, V. Blaschke, A. Karamcheti, and C.S. Chang, "Permittivity characterization of low-k thin films from tranmission-line measurements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 132-136, January 2003.
  5. D.F. Williams, U. Arz, H. Grabinski, "Characteristic-Impedance Measurement Error on Lossy Substrates," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 299-301, July 2001.
  6. D.K. Walker, D.F. Williams, A. Padilla, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski, "Four-Port Microwave Measurement System Speeds On-Wafer Calibration and Test," Microwave Journal, pp. 144-150, March 2001.
  7. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, H. Grabinski, "High-Frequency Behavior of Coupled CMOS Interconnects Built in Different Metallization Layers,"56th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 32-37, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000.
  8. D.F. Williams, A.C. Byers, V.C. Tyree, D.K. Walker, J.J. Ou, X. Jin, M. Piket-May, and C. Hu, "Contact-pad design for high-frequency silicon measurements," 9th Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 131-134, Oct. 23-25, 2000.
  9. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Accurate electrical measurement of coupled lines on lossy silicon," 9th Topical Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 181-184, Oct. 23-25, 2000.  
  10. U. Arz, D.F. Williams, D.K. Walker, and H. Grabinski, "Asymmetric Coupled CMOS Lines: An Experimental Study," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 48, no. 12, Dec. 2000.
  11. U. Arz, H. Grabinski, and D.F. Williams, "Influence of the Substrate Resistivity on the Broadband Propagation Characteristics of Silicon Transmission Lines," 54th ARFTG Conference Digest, Dec. 1-2, 1999.
  12. D.F. Williams and D.K. Walker, "0.1-10 GHz CMOS Voltage Standard," IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects, Titisee-Neustadt, Germany, May 19-21, 1999.  
  13. D.F. Williams and D. C. DeGroot, "Electrical Measurements for Electronic Interconnections at NIST," 1999 URSI General Assembly, Toronto, Canada, August 13-21, 1999.  
  14. D. F. Williams, "Metal-insulator-silicon transmission lines," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 176-181, Feb. 1999.  
  15. D. F. Williams, "High frequency limitations of the JEDEC 123 guideline," 7th Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 54-57, Oct. 26-28, 1998.
  16. D.C. DeGroot and D. F. Williams, "National Institute of Standards and Technology programs in electrical measurements for electronic interconnections," 7th Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 45-49, Oct. 26-28, 1998.
  17. D. F. Williams and D. K. Walker, "In-line multiport calibration," 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 88-90, June 12, 1998.
  18. D. F. Williams, "Metal-insulator-silicon transmission line model," 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 65-71, June 12, 1998.
  19. D. F. Williams, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski "Accurate Characteristic Impedance Measurement on Silicon," 1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest, pp. 1917-1920, June 9-11, 1998.
  20. D. F. Williams, M. D. Janezic, A. Ralston, S. List, "Quasi-TEM model for coplanar waveguide on silicon," 1997 EPEP Conference Digest, pp. 225-228, Oct. 27-29, 1997.  
  21. M. D. Janezic and D. F. Williams, "Permittivity Characterization from Transmission-Line Measurement," IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest, vol. 3, pp. 1343-1345, June 10-12, 1997.
  22. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Electrical characterization methods for high-speed interconnections," International Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging, vol. 18, pp. 207-216, 1995.
  23. R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, C. K. Pao, and C. P. Wen, "Electrical Measurements of Microwave Flip-Chip Interconnections," Proceedings of the International Symposium on Microelectronics, pp. 424-429, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 1995.  
  24. R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, C. K. Pao, C. P. Wen, and Y. C. Shih, "Microwave Characterization of Flip-Chip MMIC Components," Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 343-350, Las Vegas, NV, May 1995.  
  25. R. B. Marks, J. A. Jargon, C. K. Pao, and C. P. Wen, "Microwave Characterization of Flip-Chip MMIC Interconnections," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Orlando, FL, pp. 1463-1466, May 1995.
  26. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Accurate electrical characterization of high-speed interconnections," Proceedings, 1994 International Symposium on Microelectronics, pp. 96-101, Nov. 1994. (Best Paper of session Award)
  27. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "On-Wafer Impedance Measurement on Lossy Substrates," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 175-176, June 1994.  
  28. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Microwave Characterization of Printed Circuit Transmission Lines," NEPCON East, pp. 520-527, June 1994.  
  29. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Accurate Transmission Line Characterization," IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 247-249, Aug. 1993.
  30. R. B. Marks and D. F. Williams, "Interconnection Transmission Line Parameter Characterization," 40th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 88-95, Dec. 1992.
  31. D. F. Williams and R. B. Marks, "Frequency-Dependent Transmission Line Parameters'," IEEE Topical Meeting on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, pp. 125-127, Apr. 1992.
  32. K. Phillips and D. Williams, "MMIC Package Characterization with Active Loads," 36th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 64-72, Nov. 1990.
  33. D. F. Williams, "Damping of the Resonant Modes of a Rectangular Metal Package," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 253-256, Jan. 1989.

Electronic Materials Characterization

  1. M.D. Janezic, D.F. Williams, V. Blaschke, A. Karamcheti, and C.S. Chang, "Permittivity characterization of low-k thin films from tranmission-line measurements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 132-136, January 2003.
  2. M. D. Janezic and J. A. Jargon, "Complex Permittivity Determination from Propagation Constant Measurements, IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 76-78, Feb. 1999.
  3. D. F. Williams, U. Arz, and H. Grabinski "Accurate Characteristic Impedance Measurement on Silicon," 1998 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest, pp. 1917-1920, June 9-11, 1998.
  4. D. F. Williams, M. D. Janezic, A. Ralston, S. List, "Quasi-TEM model for coplanar waveguide on silicon," 1997 EPEP Conference Digest, pp. 225-228, Oct. 27-29, 1997.  
  5. D. F. Williams, J.-M. Belquin, A. Spisser, A. Cappy, and D. Dambrine, "Characterization of coplanar waveguide on epitaxial layers," Electronics Letters, vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 1468-1469, Aug. 1997.
  6. M. D. Janezic and D. F. Williams, "Permittivity Characterization from Transmission-Line Measurement," IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest, vol. 3, pp. 1343-1345, June 10-12, 1997.

High-Speed Electrical and Electro-optic Measurements

  1. Wang, C. M. J., Hale, P. D., Jargon, J. A., Williams, D. F., Remley, K. A., "Sequential Estimation of Timebase Corrections for an Arbitrarily Long Waveform," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 2689-2694, Oct. 2012.
  2. P.D. Hale, J. Jargon, C.M. Wang, B. Grossman, J. Torres, A. Dienstfrey, D.F. Williams, "A Statistical Study of De-Embedding Applied to Eye Diagram Analysis," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 475-488, February 2012.
  3. A. Lewandowski and D.F. Williams, "Characterization and modeling of random vector network analyzer measurement errors," 17th International Conf. on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications, 19-21 May, 2008.
  4. C.M. Wang, P.D. Hale and D.F. Williams, "Uncertainty of timebase corrections," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 58, no. 10, pp 3468-3472, Oct. 2009.
  5. P.D. Hale, A. Dienstfrey, C.M. Wang, D.F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, D.A. Keenan and T.S. Clement "Traceable waveform calibration With a covariance-Based uncertainty analysis," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 58, no. 10, pp 3554-3568, Oct. 2009.
  6. D. F. Williams, T.S. Clement, K. A. Remley, and P. D. Hale, "Systematic error of the nose-to-nose sampling oscilloscope calibration," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 55, no. 9, Sept. 2007, pp. 1951-1963.
  7. D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, K.A. Remley, "The sampling oscilloscope as a microwave instrument," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Aug. 2007, pp. 59-68.
  8. D.F. Williams, T.S. Clement, P.D. Hale, and A. Dienstfrey, "Terminology for high-speed sampling-oscilloscope calibration," ARFTG Conf. Dig., pp. 9-14, Dec. 2006. (ARFTG best paper award)
  9. P. D. Hale, C. M. Wang, D. F. Williams, K. A. Remley, and J. Wepman, "Compensation of random and systematic timing errors in sampling oscilloscopes," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 55, no. 6. pp. 2146-2154, Dec. 2006.
  10. A. Dienstfrey, P. D. Hale, D. A. Keenan, T. S. Clement, D. F. Williams, " Minimum-phase calibration of sampling oscilloscopes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., pp. 3197 - 3208, Aug. 2006.
  11. T.S. Clement, P.D. Hale, D.F. Williams, C. M. Wang, A. Dienstfrey, and D.A. Keenan, "Calibration of sampling oscilloscopes with high-speed photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., pp. 3173 - 3181, Aug. 2006.
  12. D. F. Williams, H. Khenissi, F. Ndagijimana, K. A. Remley, J. P. Dunsmore, P. D. Hale, C. M. Wang, and T. S. Clement, "Sampling-Oscilloscope Measurement of a Microwave Mixer with Single-Digit Phase Accuracy," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1210-1217, March 2006.  
  13. D. F. Williams, A. Lewandowski, T. S. Clement, C. M. Wang, P. D. Hale, J. M. Morgan, D. Keenan, and A. Dienstfrey, "Covariance-Based Uncertainty Analysis of the NIST Electro-optic Sampling System," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 481-491, Jan. 2006.
  14. D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and J.M. Morgan, "Calibrated 200 GHz Waveform Measurement," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1384-1389, April, 2005.
  15. D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, C.M. Wang, "Uncertainty of the NIST electrooptic sampling system," NIST Tech. Note 1535, Dec. 2004.  
  16. K. A. Remley, D. F. Williams, D. F. Schreurs, and J. Wood, "Simplifying and interpreting two-tone measurements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2576-2584, Nov. 2004.
  17. K.A. Remley and D.F. Williams, "Sampling oscilloscope models and calibrations," 2003 Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 1507-1510, June 10-12, 2003. (invited)
  18. P.D. Hale and D.F. Williams, "Calibrated measurement of optoelectronic frequency response," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1422-1429, April 2003. (Winner of the NIST Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory 2003 Outstanding Authorship Award.)
  19. T.S. Clement, P.D. Hale, D.F. Williams, and J.M. Morgan, "Calibrating photoreciever response to 110 GHz," 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Confrence Digest, Nov. 10-14, 2002, Glasglow, Scotland.
  20. U. Arz, H.C. Reader, P. Kabos, D.F. Williams, "Wideband Frequency-Domain Characterization of High-Impedance Probes," 58th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 117-124, Nov. 29-30, 2001.
  21. D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and J.M. Morgan, "Calibrating electro-optic sampling systems," Int. Microwave Symposium Digest, Phoenix, AZ, pp. 1527-1530, May 20-25, 2001.
  22. P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, D.F. Williams, E. Balta, and N.D. Taneja, "Measuring the Frequency Response of Gigabit Chip Photodiodes," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1333-1339, September 2001.  
  23. P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and D.F. Williams, "Frequency response metrology for high-speed optical receivers, "Optical Fiber Conference (OFC'01) Digest, Anaheim, CA, pp. WQ1-1-3, March 17-22, 2001.
  24. P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and D.F. Williams, "Measuring frequency response of high-speed optical receivers requires microwave measurements," SPIE's OE Magazine, p. 56, March 2001.
  25. D.F. Williams, P.D. Hale, T.S. Clement, and J.M. Morgan, "Mismatch corrections for electro-optic sampling systems," 56th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 141-145, Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 2000. (Best Poster Award)