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Recent Noise Publications 

"Recommended Terminology for Microwave Radiometry"
J. Randa, J. Lahtinen, A. Camps, A.J. Gasiewski, M. Hallikainen, D.M. Le Vine, M. Martin-Neira, J. Piepmeier, P.W. Rosenkranz, C.S. Ruf, J. Shiue, and N. Skou; NIST Technical Note TN1551, August 2008.

"Noise-Parameter Measurement with Automated Variable Terminations"
D. Gu, D.K. Walder, and J. Randa, CPEM 2008 Digest, pp. 706 - 707, Broomfield, CO, June 2008.

"Uncertainty Analsyis for Noise-Parameter Measurements"
J. Randa, CPEM 2008 Digest, pp. 498 - 499, Broomfield, CO, June 2008.

"Uncertainty Analysis for NIST Noise-Parameter Measurements"
J. Randa, NIST Technical Note TN1530, March 2008.

"Simulations of Noise-Parameter Verification Using Cascade with Isolator or Mismatched Transmission Line"
J. Randa, K. Wong, and R. Pollard, 70th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 77 - 83; Tempe, AZ; Nov. 2007.

"Standards Development for Remote Sensing at Microwave and Terahertz Frequencies"
J. Randa, E. Gerecht, D.K. Walker, A. Cox, D. Gu, L. You, and R.L. Billinger, International Conference on Measurement and Metrology (ICMM-2007) General Reports, pp. 33 - 42; Beijing, China; Sept. 2007.

"On-Wafer Measurement of Transistor Noise Parameters at NIST"
J. Randa and D.K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 551 - 554, April 2007.

"Merits of PM Noise Measurement Over Noise Figure: A Study at Microwave Frequencies"
A. Hati, D.A. Howe, F.L. Walls, and D.K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Contr., vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1889 - 1894, Oct. 2006.

"Proposal for Development of a National Microwave Brightness-Temperature Standard"
J. Randa, A.E. Cox, and D.K. Walker, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6301, 630105 (Sept. 2006)

"Proposed Development of a National Standard for Microwave Brightness Temperature"
J. Randa, A.E. Cox, and D.K. Walker, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS-2006) Conference Digest, Denver, August 2006.

"Preliminary Studies of Electromagnetic Properties of Microwave Absorbing Materials used in Calibration Targets"
A.E. Cox and M.D. Janezic, IGARSS-2006 Conference Digest, Denver, August 2006.

"Initial Results from the Infrared Calibration and Infrared Imaging of a Microwave Calibration Target"
A.E. Cox, J.J. O'Connell, and J. P. Rice, IGARSS -2006 Conference Digest, Denver, August 2006.

"On-Wafer Noise-Parameter Measurements at NIST"
D.K. Walker and J. Randa, CPEM 2006 Digest, pp. 656 - 657, Torino, Italy, July 2006.

"Terahertz Radiometer Design for Traceable Noise-Temperature Measurements"
E. Gerecht, D. Gu, J. Randa, D. Walker and R. Billinger, CPEM 2006 Digest, pp. 660 - 661, Torino, Italy, July 2006.

"Reverse Noise Measurement and Use in Device Characterization"
J. Randa, T. McKay, S.L. Sweeney, D.K. Walker, L. Wagner, D.R. Greenberg, J. Tao, and G.A. Rezvani, 2006 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium Digest, pp. 345 - 348, San Francisco, June 2006.

"Precision Measurement Method for Cryogenic Amplifier Noise Temperatures Below 5 K"
J. Randa, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, and R.L. Billinger, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory & Techniques, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1180 - 1189, March 2006.

"Interlaboratory Comparison of Noise-Parameter Measurements on CMOS Devices with 0.12 um Gate Length"
J. Randa, S.L. Sweeney, T. McKay, D.K. Walker, D.R. Greenberg, J. Tao, J. Mendez, G.A. Rezvani, and J.J. Pekarik, 66th ARFTG Microwave Measurements Conference Digest, pp. 77 - 81, Washington, DC (2005).

"Errors Resulting From the Reflectivity of Calibration Targets"
J. Randa, D.K. Walker, A.E. Cox, and R.L. Billinger, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 50 - 58, (2005).

"Standard Radiometers and Targets for Microwave Remote Sensing"
J. Randa, A.E. Cox, D.K. Walker, M. Francis, J. Guerrieri, and K. MacReynolds, 2004 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2004) Digest, paper 2TU_30_10, Anchorage, AK (2004).

"Errors Due to the Reflectivity of Calibration Targets"
J. Randa, D.K. Walker, A.E. Cox, and R.L. Billinger, 2004 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2004) Digest, paper 4TH_70_02, Anchorage, AK (2004).

"Nonlinear Modeling of Tunnel Diode Detectors"
D.K. Walker, K.J. Coakley, and J.D. Splett, 2004 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2004) Digest, paper 8ITH_14_11, Anchorage, AK (2004).

"Linking Microwave Remote-Sensing Measurements to Fundamental Noise Standards"
J. Randa, D.K. Walker, M. Francis, and K. MacReynolds, 2004 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements Digest, pp. 465 - 466, London (2004).

"Radiometric Measurements of a Near-Ambient, Variable-Temperature Noise Standard"
G. Free, J. Randa, and R.L. Billinger, 2004 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements Digest, pp. 414 - 415, London (2004).

"Systematic Errors in Noise Parameter Determination Due to Imperfect Source Impedance Measurement"
W. Wiatr and D.K. Walker, 2004 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements Digest, pp. 416 - 417, London (2004).

"Amplifier noise-parameter measurement checks and verification"
J. Randa and D.K. Walker, 63rd ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 41 - 45, Ft. Worth, TX (2004).

"Traceability for microwave remote-sensing radiometry"
J. Randa, NIST Interagency Report, NISTIR 6631, June 2004.

"Noise figure vs. PM noise measurements: a study at microwave frequencies"
A. Hati, D.A. Howe, F.L. Walls, and D. Walker, IEEE 2003 International Frequency Control Symposium Digest.

"Noise-parameter uncertainties: A Monte Carlo simulaton"
J. Randa, J. Re. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 107, 431 – 444 (2002).

"Monte Carlo estimation of noise-parameter uncertainties"
J. Randa and W. Wiatr, IEE Proceedings—Science, Measurement and Technology, vol. 149, 333 – 337 (2002).

"Simulations of noise-parameter uncertainties"
J. Randa, 2002 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp. 1845 – 1848, Seattle, WA (2002)

"Vector corrected noise temperature measurements"
M.H. Weatherspoon, L.P. Dunleavy, A. Boudiaf, and J. Randa, 2002 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp. 2253 – 2256, Seattle, WA (2002).

"The 30/60 MHz tuned radiometer—The NIST system for noise temperature measurements"
C.A. Grosvenor and R.L. Billinger, NIST Technical Note 1525 (March, 2002).

"Noise-parameter uncertainties from Monte Carlo simulations"
J. Randa and W. Wiatr, Digest of the 2001 British Electromagnetic Measurement Conference, Harrogate, U.K. (2001).

"Noise characterization of multiport amplifiers" .
J. Randa, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory & Techniques, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1757–1763 (2001)

"Stability measurements on noise sources"
J. Randa, L.P. Dunleavy, and L.A. Terrell, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 368–372 (2001).

"International comparison: Noise temperature of coaxial (GPC-7) sources"
J. Randa, J. Achkar, F.-Im. Buchholz, T. Colard, D. Schubert, M. Sinclair, J. Rice, and G. Williams, Metrologia, vol. 37, pp. 351–352 (2000).

"NFRad—Review of the new NIST noise measurement system"
C. Grosvenor, J. Randa, and R.L. Billinger, 55st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 135–144; Boston, MA (2000)

"Multiport noise characterization and differential amplifiers"
J. Randa, 55st ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 106–115; Boston, MA (2000).

"Noise-source stability measurements"
J. Randa, L.P. Dunleavy, and L.A. Terrell, 2000 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements Digest (Sydney, Australia), pp. 445–446 (2000).

"Design and testing of NFRad--A new noise measurement system"
C. Grosvenor, J. Randa, and R.L. Billinger, NIST Tech. Note 1518 (March, 2000).

Selected Earlier Publications

Noise Standards

"The noise temperature of an arbitrarily shaped microwave cavity with application to a set of millimeter wave primary standards"
W.C. Daywitt, Metrologia, 30, pp. 471 – 478 (1994).

"A derivation for the noise temperature of a horn-type noise standard"
W.C. Daywitt, Metrologia, 21, pp. 127 – 133 (1985).

"A coaxial noise standard for the 1 GHz to 12.4 GHz frequency range"
W.C. Daywitt, NBS Tech. Note 1074 (March, 1984).

"Design and error analysis for the WR10 thermal noise standard"
W.C. Daywitt, NBS Tech. Note 1071 (December, 1983).

Noise-Temperature Measurements

"Uncertainties in NIST noise-temperature measurements"
J. Randa, NIST Tech. Note 1502 (March, 1998).

"Noise-temperature measurement system for the WR-28 band"
J. Randa and L.A. Terrell, NIST Tech. Note 1395 (August, 1997).

"Radiometer noise equation for noise comparison radiometer"
D.F. Wait, IEEE Trans. Instrum. and Meas., 44, pp. 336 – 339 (April, 1995).

"Radiometer equation and analysis of systematic errors for the NIST automated radiometers"
W.C. Daywitt, NIST Tech. Note 1327 (March, 1989)

"Measurement of effective temperatures of microwave noise sources"
J.S. Wells, W.C. Daywitt, and C.K.S. Miller, IEEE Trans. Instrum. and Meas., IM-13, pp. 17 – 28 (March, 1964).

International Comparisons

"International comparison of thermal noise-temperature measurements at 2, 4, and 12 GHz"
J. Randa, J. Achkar, F.-Im. Buchholz, T. Colard, D. Schubert, M. Sinclair, J. Rice, and G. Williams, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 174–177 (1999).

"PTB-NIST bilateral comparison of microwave noise power in coaxial transmission line"
D.F. Wait, G.J. Counas, W. Kessel, and F.-I. Buchholz, IEEE Trans. Instrum. and Meas., 40, pp. 449 – 454 (April, 1991).

Amplifier Noise Measurements

"Amplifier noise measurements at NIST"
D.F. Wait and J. Randa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., IM-46, pp. 482–485 (1997).

"Application of radiometry to the accurate measurement of amplifier noise"
D.F. Wait and G.F. Engen, IEEE Trans. Instrum. and Meas., 40 (2), pp. 433 – 437 (April, 1991); corr. 42, p. 78 (February, 1993).

"An automated precision noise figure measurement system at 60 GHz"
D.R. Boyle, F.R. Clague, G.R. Reeve, D.F. Wait, and M. Kanda, IEEE Trans. Instrum. and Meas., IM-21, pp. 543 – 549 (November, 1972).

"A new method of characterizing amplifier noise performance"
G.F. Engen, IEEE Trans. Instrum. and Meas., IM-19, pp. 344 – 349 (November, 1970).

On-Wafer Noise

"On-wafer measurements of noise temperature"
J. Randa, R.L. Billinger, and J.L. Rice, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1259–1269 (1999).

"Characterization and applications of on-wafer diode noise sources"
L. Dunleavy, J. Randa, D. Walker, R. Billinger, and J. Rice, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory & Techniques, MTT-46, pp. 2620–2628 (1998).

"Noise temperature measurements on wafer"
J. Randa, NIST Tech. Note 1390 (March, 1997)

Other

"Comparison of adapter characterization methods"
J. Randa, W. Wiatr, and R.L. Billinger, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory & Techniques, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 2613–2620 (1999).

"Single-port technique for adapter efficiency evaluation"
S.P. Pucic and W.C. Daywitt, 45th ARFTG Conference Digest, pp. 113 – 118, Orlando, FL (May, 1995).

"Determining adapter efficiency by envelope averaging swept frequency reflection data"
W.C. Daywitt, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., MTT-38 (11), pp. 1748 – 1752 (Nov., 1990).

"Thermal noise from a passive linear multiport"
D.F. Wait, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., MTT-16 (9), pp. 687 – 691 (Sept., 1968).

"Noise standards, measurements, and receiver noise definitions"
C.K.S. Miller, W.C. Daywitt, and M.G. Arthur, Proc IEEE, 55 (6) pp. 865 – 877 (June, 1967).