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WWVB Station Library


This page contains a list of publications (available in PDF format) containing information about NIST radio station WWVB.  Although some of these publications contain information that is now obsolete, all contain some unique information that is not available elsewhere, and are made available here as reference material.  Guides to the NIST time and frequency services that contain information about WWVB are listed first.  The remaining publications are listed in reverse chronological order.

           
Title and Description Authors Place of Publication
NIST Time and Frequency Services, 2002 edition

An illustrated, comprehensive overview that describes NIST Radio Stations WWVB, WWV, and WWVH work, and how you can use them.  Chapter 2 is completely devoted to WWVB.  80 pages.
M. Lombardi NIST Special Publication 432, 2002
1991 Guide to NIST Time and Frequency Services, 38 pages
1979 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 23 pages
1976 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 23 pages
1974 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 20 pages
1973 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 20 pages
1972 Guide to NBS Frequency and Time Services, 18 pages
1971 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 17 pages
1970 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 18 pages
1969 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 18 pages
1968 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 17 pages
1967 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 14 pages
1966 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 14 pages
1965 Guide to NBS Time and Frequency Services, 12 pages

Guides to the NIST (formerly NBS) Time and Frequency Broadcast Services have been published many times since WWV originally went on the air in 1923.  All guides since the 1965 guide (the first to include WWVB) are made available here for historical reference.
Beehler, Lombardi
S. L. Howe
S. L. Howe
P. Viezbicke
P. Viezbicke
P. Viezbicke
NBS
NBS
NBS
NBS
NBS
NBS
NBS
NIST Spec. Publ. 432
NIST Spec. Publ. 432
NBS Spec. Publ. 432
NBS Spec. Publ. 236
NBS Spec. Publ. 236
NBS Spec. Publ. 236
NBS Spec. Publ. 236
NBS Spec. Publ. 236
NBS Spec. Publ. 236
NBS Spec. Publ. 236
NBS Misc. Publ. 236
NBS Misc. Publ. 236
NBS Misc. Publ. 236
How Accurate is a Radio Controlled Clock?

A detailed discussion of the accuracy of WWVB radio controlled clocks.  It reviews the factors that limit the accuracy of a radio-controlled clock, including how accurate the radio station signal is, how long it takes the signal to reach the clock, how accurately the clock synchronizes with the signal, and how accurately the clock keeps time between synchronizations.  4 pages.
M. Lombardi The Horological Journal, March 2010
WWVB Radio Controlled Clocks:  Recommended Practices for Manufacturers and Consumers

A NIST Recommended Practice Guide written to provide guidance to both manufacturers and consumers of radio controlled clocks. Through voluntary compliance with the recommended practices listed in this guide, manufacturers can benefit by continuing to develop more reliable and usable radio controlled products, increasing both consumer confidence and sales. Consumers can benefit by using this guide to help them select and purchase radio controlled clock products, to learn how the products work, and to help troubleshoot reception problems. 64 pages.
M. Lombardi, A. Novick, J. Lowe, M. Deutch, G. Nelson, D. Sutton, W. Yates, D. Hanson NIST Special Publication 960-14, August 2009
Increasing the Modulation Depth of the WWVB Time Code to Improve the Performance of Radio Controlled Clocks

An analysis of why the WWVB modulation depth was increase from 10 dB to 17 dB in January 2006.  7 pages.
J. Lowe and K. Allen Proceedings of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, June 2006
Radio Controlled Wristwatches

A look at radio controlled wristwatches, including those that synchronize to WWVB.  4 pages.
M. Lombardi The Horological Journal, May 2006
Does Anybody Really Know What Time It Is?

A review article about the world's time signal broadcast stations, including WWV, WWVH, and WWVB.  8 pages.
M. Lombardi Popular Communications, February 2006
NIST Time and Frequency Radio Stations:  WWV, WWVH, and WWVB

A comprehensive look at the NIST time and frequency broadcast stations, written in support of the NIST quality system.  161 pages.
G. Nelson, M. Lombardi, D. Okayama NIST Special Publication 250-67, January 2005
NIST Time and Frequency Broadcasts from Radio Stations WWVB, WWV, and WWVH

Conference paper about the NIST time and frequency broadcast stations.  14 pages.
M. Deutch, E. Farrow, J. Lowe, G. Nelson, D. Okayama, D. Patterson, D. Sutton, W. Yates Proceedings of the NCSL International Conference, Washington, D. C., August 2001
WWVB Improvements:  New Power from an Old Timer

A detailed look at the 1999 station power upgrade.  15 pages.
M. Deutch, W. Hanson, G. Nelson, C. Snider, D. Sutton, W. Yates, P. Hansen, B. Hopkins Proceedings of the Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting, 1999
Time and Frequency Users Manual

A comprehensive guide to time and frequency measurements and applications.  Chapter 6 is devoted to LF and VLF calibrations and includes information about using WWVB.  164 pages.
G. Kamas, M. Lombardi NIST Special Publication 559, 1990
Standard Time and Frequency:  Its Generation, Control, and Dissemination by the National Bureau of Standards

A technical description of the NIST (then NBS) radio stations published in 1974. 23 pages.
J. Milton NBS Technical Note 656, 1974
Time and Frequency Dissemination:  An Overview of Principles and Techniques

A detailed discussion of how the propagation characteristics of radio signals limits their uncertainty for time and frequency measurements.  The text includes a section on LF broadcasts.  81 pages.
B. Blair Chapter 10 from NBS Monograph 140, 1974
Standard Time and Frequency:  Its Generation, Control, and Dissemination from the National Bureau of Standards Time and Frequency Division

The precursor to NBS Technical Note 656 (above).  28 pages.
J. Milton NBS Technical Note 379-1, 1972
WWVB/WWVL Field Studies

A detailed report about WWVB field strength measurements, written in 1969 when the station's power level was approximately 25% of what it is today.  131 pages.
J. Milton NBS Report 9725, 1969
Reception of Low Frequency Time Signals

An interesting article about identifying the WWVB on-time marker and making precise time measurements.  Discusses the problem of cycle ambiguity. 9 pages.
D. Andrews, C. Chaslain, J. DePrins Frequency, 1968
WWVB Adds Time Code to Broadcast

An article announcing the WWVB time code in 1966.  2 pages.
NBS NBS Technical News Bulletin, 1966
New Facilities Dedicated for WWVB and WWVL

An early article about the construction of the WWVB facilities near Fort Collins, Colorado.  3 pages.
NBS NBS Technical News Bulletin, 1963
Low Frequency Standards Transmissions

An early paper about radio station KK2XE1, the predecessor to WWVB.  12 pages.
W. George Proceedings of Frequency Control Symposium, 1957


For questions or more information contact Michael Lombardi.