**Small Mass and Small Force Metrology at NIST**—There are two projects: The electronic milligram; and NIST-on-a-chip optomechanical methods for calibration of mass, force, laser power and other quantities.

**Calibration of Force Transducers**—NIST provides calibration services for force-measuring devices by applying known forces, either tension or compression, to the elastic device and recording the sensed deformation. Most calibrated …

**National Type Evaluation Program (NTEP)**—The NTEP program is administered through the National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM).

**NIST Mise en Pratique of the New Kilogram Definition**—As part of a New SI system of units to be adopted in 2018, the kilogram will be redefined so that it may be realized in terms of Planck’s constant. By experimental necessity, this new realization …

**Calibration of Mass Standards**—NIST maintains the national standard for mass in the form of the prototype kilograms (K4, K20, K79, K92, and K102) and provides services to support the parts of the national measurement system that …

**SI-traceable Dynamic Force**—Established calibration methods for force transducers are static, with a known constant force applied to the transducer and compared to the transducer indication. However many force measurements …

**Reconditioning of the 4.45 MN deadweight machine**—Physical disassembly of the 4.45 MN (1,000,000 lbf) deadweight machine (DWM) began in FY15 in order to address material galling that developed in key structural components within the stainless …

**Quantum State Manipulation of Ultra-cold Fermionic and Bosonic Atoms**—This theoretical research is done in collaboration with scientists at the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) and the Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science (QuICS), both research …

**Quantum information technology and correlated photon radiometry**—We develop methods and devices to further radiometric techniques and quantum information technology. This includes developing and characterizing new sources with engineered single photon state …

**Spectroscopy of Engineered Atoms**—Experiments with atomic systems designed to have features more favorable for improved measurements of atomic properties and constants of nature.

**Metrology of the Ohm**—Resistance standards traceable to NIST provide references for measurements of current at levels from 3000 A to below 20 fA and are used to support a wide variety of impedance, temperature, strain, …

**Quantum Conductance**—Graphene, discovered in 2004, has truly extraordinary electronic properties that enable new approaches in many areas where conventional materials are running into obstacles, ranging from the macro …

**Multi-Photon Laser Cooling**—Laser cooling of atoms is a powerful and widely used tool in atomic physics. Traditional laser cooling relies primarily on the mechanical effect of single-photon transitions between ground states …

**Plasma Metrology**—Experimental and computational techniques in support of commercial and scientific uses of plasmas.

**Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center **—Critical compilations of atomic energy levels, transition wavelengths, and transition probabilities. Online databases.

**Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) Facility**—The NIST EBIT Facility is used to investigate the science and applications of highly charged ions.

**Electronic Kilogram**—This project provides the basis for a new definition of mass, based on unchanging quantum properties of nature rather than a physical artifact. This is accomplished through a high-accuracy …

**Precision Measurement Grants Program**—Since 1970, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has awarded Precision Measurement Grants to faculty members of U.S. universities or colleges for significant research in the …

**Newtonian constant of gravitation international consortium**—The Newtonian constant of gravitation G is one of the most fundamental constants of classical physics. Recent measurements of G are in disagreement, with discrepancies that are roughly ten times …

**CODATA values of the fundamental constants**—Every four years, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) issues recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. The values are determined by a least-squares adjustment, …

**International System of Units (SI)**—The International System of Units (SI) provides definitions of units of measurement that are widely accepted in science and technology and which set measurement standards agreed to through the …

**Farad and Impedance Metrology**—This project aims to provide the world’s best basis for accurate impedance measurements by tying the U.S. legal system of electrical units to the International System of Units (SI) through the …

**AC-DC Difference**—The NIST ac-dc Difference Project provides U.S. industry with the essential link between ac and the corresponding dc electrical standards via a world-class calibration service, and through …

**Micro- and Nano-Mechanical Systems**—Micro- and nano-optomechanical systems are being investigated experimentally to bring these systems toward the quantum limit, study quantum behavior in these macroscopic systems and explore …

**Single Electron Coherence**—CMOS-compatible Si-based SET quantum dots systems are being fabricated and electrically characterized at low temperature to explore the possibility of quantum coherent manipulation in Si-based …

**Ultracold atoms and molecules **—Theory for ultracold atomic and molecular collisions and interactions is being developed and exploited to gain precise control over these interactions through tunable magnetic, electric, or …

**Nonlinear Optics and Non-classical Light**—Nonlinear optics provides a way to generate light with different frequencies and different quantum statistical properties. We have developed a nonlinear 4-wave mixing technology in atomic vapors …

**Quantum Computation and Simulation with Neutral Atoms**—Quantum information processing seeks to use the features of quantum physics to accomplish otherwise intractable computational tasks. The two main thrusts of quantum information research we are …

**Spinor Condensates and Ultracold Collisions**—Interactions between cold atoms can provide us with the means to manipulate matter on the smallest scales. Collisions between laser-cooled atoms, in particular amongst those in Bose-Einstein …

**Light-matter Interactions in Semiconductor Nanostructures**—The quantum optics of light interacting with semiconductor-based nanostructures is being studied to extend concepts of entanglement and coherence in atomic physics to solid-state systems such as …

**Designing the Nanoworld: Nanostructures, Nanodevices, and Nanooptics**—Nanoscale theory of the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of ultrasmall structures, devices and their dynamical operation and the nanooptics of these systems is being developed to …

**Applied Quantum Information Science**—Theory is being developed and used to devise methods for preserving and exploiting the quantum behavior of ever-larger systems and finding potential roles for these systems in technology.

**Fabry-Perot displacement interferometry**—High-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometry is being developed and employed for mechanical displacement metrology, linking optical measurements to the atomic time standard using laser frequency combs.

**Fabrication and Metrology of Novel Magnetic Tunnel Junctions in the Ultra-thin Barrier Limit**—Magnetic tunnel junctions, nanostructured by highly charged ions, are being probed and characterized to establish the foundation for novel magnetic random access memory architectures expected to …

**Advanced Linear and Nonlinear Optical Metrology in support of next-generation Lithography**—High precision linear and nonlinear optics of next-generation lithographic techniques is measured and characterized to enable these technologies.

**Improved quantitative medical CT imaging**—Develop precision calibration standards for accurate determination of feature sizes in computed tomography images, to improve reliability of measurements of drug response, thus reducing time and …

**Electric Power Metrology and the Smart Grid**—Our country's way of life depends on the electric power distribution system. Keeping the national electric grid in good working order -- and ensuring power is measured accurately and billed fairly …

**Quantum Physics Theory**—Theoretical work relevant to the determination of values of the fundamental constants, tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED), and methods of numerical analysis are included among the …

**High-Resolution Atomic Spectroscopy**—Accurate measurements of atomic transitions using diffraction grating spectrographs, Fourier transform spectrometers, and laser spectroscopy.