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R. Joseph Kline, Ph.D.

Research Interests

My research involves developing methods for microstructural characterization of polymer thin films using x-ray diffraction and scanned probe microscopy. These measurements are used to determine the relationships between chemical structure, molecular packing, microstructure, electronic transport, and power conversion efficiency in semiconducting polymers for thin-film transistors and photovoltaics. I also am developing methods for using soft and hard x-ray scattering to characterize the pattern shape in next generation lithographies such as directed-self assembly of block copolymers. I am currently the project leader of the dimensional metrology project and actively participate in the organic electronics and photovoltaics project.

An image of pBTTT film made with an atomic force microscope.

Awards and Honors

Professional Service

Research Opportunities

National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship – Open to U.S. citizens with an annual stipend of $65,600 per year. Applications are due on either Feb. 1 or Aug. 1. Contact me if interested in an NRC post-doc for researching organic electronics or photovoltaics, directed self-assembly of block copolymers, or X-ray scattering of polymers.

Selected Publications

  • "Determination of the Internal Morphology of Nanostructures Patterned by Directed Self Assembly," D.F. Sunday, M.R. Hammond, C. Wang, W.L. Wu, D.M. DeLongchamp, M. Tjio, J.Y. Cheng, J.W. Pitera, R.J. Kline, ACS Nano, 8 (8), 2014, 8426-8437 <Link>
  • "Molecular Origin of High Field-Effect Mobility in an Indacenodithiophene-Benzothiadiazole Copolymer," X. Zhang, H. Bronstein, A.J. Kronemeijer, J. Smith, Y. Kim, R.J. Kline, L.J. Richter, T.D. Anthopoulos, H. Sirringhaus, K. Song, M. Heeney, W. Zhang, I. McCulloch, D.M. DeLongchamp, Nature Comm. 4, 2013, 2238 <Link>
  • "Controlling the Microstructure of Solution-Processible Small Molecules in Thin-Film Transistors through Substrate Chemistry," R. J. Kline, S. D. Hudson, X. Zhang, D. Gundlach, A. Moad, L. J. Richter, O. Jurchescu, T. Jackson, S. Subramanian, J. E. Anthony, M. F. Toney, Chem. Mater. 23, (2011), 1194-1203 <Link>
  • "Contact-induced crystallinity for high-performance soluble acene-based transistors and circuits," D. J. Gundlach, J. E. Royer, S. K. Park, S. Subramanian, O. D. Jurchescu, B. H. Hamadani, A. J. Moad, R. J. Kline, L. C. Teague, O. Kirillov, C. A. Richter, J. G. Kushmerick, L. J. Richter, S. R. Parkin, T. N. Jackson, and J. E. Anthony, Nature Materials 7 (3), (2008) 216-21 <Link>
  • "The Critical Role of Side-Chain Attachment Density on the Order and Device Performance of Polythiophenes," R.J. Kline, D.M. DeLongchamp, D.A. Fischer, E.K. Lin, L.J. Richter, M.L. Chabinyc, M.F. Toney, M. Heeney, and I. McCulloch, Macromolecules 40 (22), (2007) 7960-5 <Link>
  • "Significant dependence of morphology and charge carrier mobility on substrate surface chemistry in high performance polythiophene semiconductor films," R.J. Kline, D.M. DeLongchamp, D.A. Fischer, E.K. Lin, M. Heeney, I. McCulloch, M.F. Toney, Appl. Phys. Lett., 90 (6), (2007) 062117 <Link>
  • "Liquid-Crystalline Semiconductoring Polymers with High-Charge Carrier Mobility," I. McCulloch, M. Heeney, C. Bailey, K. Genevicius, I. MacDonald, M. Shkunov, D. Sparrowe, S. Tierney, R. Wagner, W. Zhang, M.L. Chabinyc, R.J. Kline, M.D. McGehee, M.F. Toney, Nature Materials 5 (4), (2006) 328-333 <Link>
  • "Highly Oriented Crystals at the Buried Interface in Polythiophene Thin-Film Transistors," R.J. Kline, M.F. Toney, and M.D. McGehee, Nature Materials 5 (3), (2006) 222-228 <Link>
  • "Correlation between Field-Effect Mobility of Regioregular Polythiophene to Morphology and Molecular Weight," R.J. Kline, M.D. McGehee, E.N. Kadnikova, J Liu, J.M.J. Frechet, M.F. Toney, Macromolecules 38 (8), (2005), 3312-3319 <Link>
  • "Controlling the Field-Effect Mobility of Regioregular Polythiophene by Changing the Molecular Weight," R.J. Kline, M.D. McGehee, E.N. Kadnikova, J Liu, J.M.J. Frechet, Adv. Mater. 15 (18), (2003) 1519 <Link>
A photo of R Joseph Kline


Project Leader
Materials Science and Engineering Division
Functional Polymers Group

Employment History:

2012-Present:  Materials Research Engineer, Materials Science and Engineering Division, NIST

2007-2012:  Materials Research Engineer, Polymers Division, NIST

2005-2007:  NRC-NIST Postdoctoral Fellow, Polymers Division, NIST 

2000-2005:  Graduate Research Assistant, Prof. Michael D. McGehee, Stanford University

1998-2000:  Summer Intern, Intel Corporation 

1996-2000:  Research Assistant, Prof. Phillip E. Russell, North Carolina State University


Ph.D., Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 2005

M.S., Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2000

B.S., Summa Cum Laude, Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 1999


Phone: 301-975-4356
Email: joe.kline@nist.gov
Fax: 301-975-3928