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XRF Bibliography

This file is an incomplete, preliminary draft compilation of literature related to fundamental parameters XRF. It was created by John Criss, version dated 14-Aug-1997.

Literature References for Data Useful in XRF is chronological in each category. Some references might occur in more than one category. There might be multiple references to essentially the same information, to facilitate access. Several kinds of data may be found in texts and other compilations, such as those listed at the end of this Web page.

X-Ray Wavelengths and X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels

 J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels", Reviews of Modern Physics, 39, 1, January 1967

J. A. Bearden, "X-Ray Wavelengths", Reviews of Modern Physics, 39, 1, pp 78-124, January 1967

J. A. Bearden, "X-Ray Wavelengths and X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels", NSRDS-NBS 14, National Bureau of Standards, September 25, 1967

J. A. Bearden, "X-Ray Wavelengths", Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 49th ed., ed. by R. C. Weast, Chemical Rubber Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 1968, pp E136-E175

G. G. Johnson, Jr. and E. W. White, "X-Ray Emission Wavelengths and keV Tables for Nondiffractive Analysis", Amer. Soc. Test. Mater. Data Ser. DS-46, 38 pp (1970)

R. Jenkins, "Principal Emission Lines of the M Series", X-Ray Spectrometry, 2, pp 207-208 (1973)

Also see references listed under conversion tables and interaction coefficients - some list the Bearden values for lines and/or edges.

Conversion Tables Relating Emission Lines, Energies, Wavelengths, and/or Two-Theta Angles

E. W. White, G. V. Gibbs, G. G. Johnson, Jr., and G. R. Zechman, Jr., "X-Ray Wavelengths and Curved-Crystal Interchange Settings for Wavelength-Geared Curved-Crystal Spectrometers", Minerals Industries Exp. Sta., Pa. State Univ., University Park, Pa., Spec. Publ. 3-64, ed. 2 (1965)

E. W. White, G. V. Gibbs, G. G. Johnson, Jr., and G. R. Zechman, Jr., "X-Ray Emission Line Wavelengths and Two-Theta Tables", Amer. Soc. Test. Mater. Data Ser. DS-37 (1965) [ADP, CaCO3, EDDT, Gypsum, KHP, Lead stearate decanoate, LiF, Mica, NaCl, PET, Quartz (101)]

K. F. J. Heinrich and M. A. M. Giles, "X-Ray Wavelength Conversion Tables and Graphs for Qualitative Electron-Probe Microanalysis", Nat. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) Tech. Note 406, 58 pp (1967)

M. Berman and S. Ergun, "Angular Positions of X-Ray Emission Lines of the Elements for Common Analyzing Crystals", U. S. Bur. Mines Inf. Circ. 8400, 309 pp (1969) [Topaz, LiF, NaCl, Quartz (101), PET, EDDT, ADP, Gypsum, KHP]

E. W. White and G. G. Johnson, Jr., "X-Ray Emission and Absorption-Edge Wavelengths and Interchange Settings for LiF-Geared Curved-Crystal Spectrometers", Mineral Industries Exp. Sta., Pa. State Univ., University Park, Pa., Spec. Publ. 1-70, 168 pp (1970)

E. W. White and G. G. Johnson, Jr., "X-Ray Emission and Absorption Wavelengths and Two-Theta Tables", Amer. Soc. Test. Mater. Data Ser. DS-37A, ed. 2, 293 pp (1970) [ADP (101), (112), (200); Clinochlore; EDDT; Ge; Graphite; Gypsum; KHP; LiF (200), (220); Mica (002); NaCl; Pb laurate, lignocerate, melissate, stearate; PET; Quartz (100), (101), (203); RHP; Si; Topaz]

X-Ray Interaction Coefficients

J. Leroux, "Method for Finding Mass Absorption Coefficients by Empirical Equations and Graphs", Adv. X-Ray Anal. 5, 153-160 (1961)

N. V. Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken, Application Lab., "Table of x-ray mass absorption coefficients", Norelco Reporter, 9(3) (1962)

R. J. Stinner, W. H. McMaster, and N. Kerr Del Grande, "Theoretical Differential Scattering Cross Sections of X-Rays for H, He, Li, Li+, Be, B, C, and C in the Valence State", UCRL-14403, University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, California, September 23, 1965

Kurt F. J. Heinrich, "X-Ray Absorption Uncertainty", in The Electron Microprobe, ed. by T. D. McKinley, K. F. J. Heinrich, and D. B. Wittry, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1966) pp 296-377 [fitted parameters and tables]

R. D. Dewey, R. S. Mapes, and T. W. Reynolds, "A Study of X-Ray Mass Absorption Coefficients with Tables of Coefficients", Reynolds Metals Co., Metallurgical Research Div., Richmond, Va. (1967)

B. L. Henke, R. L. Elgin, R. E. Lent, and R. B. Ledingham, "X-Ray Absorption in the 2 to 200 A Region", U. S. Air Force, Office Sci. Res. Rep. AFOSR-67-1254, 35 pp (1967)

S. Manson and J. Cooper, "Photo-Ionization in the Soft x-Ray Range: Z Dependence in a Central-Potential Model", Physical Review 165(1), 126-138 (1968) [NBS work in range 100 eV - 2 keV]

J. H. Hubbell, "Photon Cross-Sections, Attenuation Coefficients, and Energy Absorption Coefficients from 10 keV to 100GeV", NSRDS-NBS-29, National Bureau of Standards (US), 80 pp (1969)

W. H. McMaster, N. K. Del Grande, J. H. Mallett, and J. H. Hubbell, "Compilation of X-Ray Cross Sections", Sec. 2, Rev. 1, University of California, Livermore, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission Report UCRL-50174, 350 pp (1969)

W. J. Viegele, E. Briggs, B. Bracewell, and M. Donaldson, "X-Ray Cross Section Compilation", KN-789-69-2(R), Kaman Nuclear Corp. (1969)

B. L. Henke and R. L. Elgin, "X-Ray Absorption Tables for the 2-to-2000 A Region", Advances in X-Ray Analysis 13, pp 639-665 (1970)

D. T. Cromer and D. Liberman, "Relativistic Calculation of Anomalous Scattering Factors for X-Rays", Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, LA 4403 TID 4500, July 1970 B. L. Bracewell and W. J. Viegele, "Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients for 87 Elements at Selected Wavelengths", Develop. Appl. Spectrosc. 9, pp 357-400 (1971)

F. Biggs and R. Lighthill, "Analytical Approximations for X-Ray Cross Sections", Part II, SC-RR-710507, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1971

Wm J. Veigele, E. Briggs, L. Bates, E. M. Henry, and B. Bracewell, "X-Ray Cross Section Compilation from 0.1 keV to 1 MeV", DNA 2433F, Kaman Sciences Corp., Colorado Springs, Colorado, 31 July 1971

Edith Briggs and Wm J. Veigele, "Supplementary Report to X-Ray Cross Section Compilation from 0.1 keV to 1 MeV", DNA 2433F Supplementary Report K-72-431 (SR), Kaman Sciences Corp., Colorado Springs, Colorado, 31 August 1972

H. A. Liebhafsky, H. G. Pfeiffer, E. H. Winslow, and P. D. Zemany, "X-Rays, Electrons, and Analytical Chemistry", Wiley-InterScience, N. Y. (1972) pp 525-528

B. L. Henke and E. S. Ebisu, "Low-Energy X-Ray and Electron Absorption within Solids (100-1500-eV Region)", Advances in X-Ray Analysis 17, pp 150-213 (1974)

J. H. Hubbell et al.," ", J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 4, 471 (1975) [atomic form factors and incoherent scattering function] J. H. Scofield, "Hartree-Slater Subshell Photoionization Cross-Sections at 1254 and 1487 eV", J. Elect. Spect. and Related Phenom., 8, 129-137 (1976) [Lawrence Livermore Lab work with tabulated values]

Jean Leroux and Tran Phuc Thinh, "Revised Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients", Corporation Scientific Claisse, Quebec (1977)

Tran Phuc Thinh and Jean Leroux, "New Basic Empirical Expression for Computing Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients", X-Ray Spectrometry, v 8, pp 85-91 (1979)

V. Yarzhemsky, V. Nefedov, M. Amusia, N. Cherepkov, and L. Chernysheva, "Relative Intensities in X-Ray Photoelectron Spectra. Part VIII", J. Elect. Spect and Related Phenom. 23, 175-186 (1981) [cross-sections calculated with random-phase approximation with exchange]

E. F. Plechaty, D. E. Cullen, R. J. Howerton, "Tables and Graphs of Photon-Interaction Cross Sections From 0.1 keV to 100 MeV Derived From the LLL Evaluated- Nuclear-Data Library", UCRL-50400, Vol. 6, Rev. 3, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, California, November 11, 1981

S. Goldberg, C. Fadley and S. Kono, "Photoionization Cross-Sections for Atomic Orbitals with Random and Fixed Spatial Orientation", J. Elect. Spect. and Related Phenom. 21, 285-363 (1985) [calculated values with tabulations for excitation by Al K-alpha radiation]

K. F. J. Heinrich, "Mass Absorption Coefficients for Electron Probe Microanalysis", in Proc. 11th Int. Congress on X-Ray Optics and Microanalysis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, p 72 (1986)

E. B. Saloman and J. H. Hubbell, "Critical Analysis of Soft X-Ray Cross Section Data", Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research A255, 38-42 (1987) [NBS work in the range 100 eV - 100 keV]

Fluorescence Yields and Other Transition Probabilities

R. W. Fink, R. C. Jopson, Hans Mark, and C. D. Swift, "Atomic Fluorescence Yields", Reviews of Modern Physics, v 38, n 3, 513-540 (July, 1966)

W. Bambynek, B. Craseman, R. W. Fink, H. U. Freund, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, R. E. Price, and P. V. Rao, "X-Ray Fluorescence Yields, Auger, and Coster-Kronig Transition Probabilities", Reviews of Modern Physics, v 44, n 4, pp 716-813 (October, 1972)

H. U. Freund, "Recent Experimental Values for K Shell X-ray Fluorescence Yields", 4, pp 90-91 (1975) N. Broll, "Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. Theory and Practice of the Fundamental Coefficient Method", X-Ray Spectrometry, v 15, pp 271-285 (1986) [data from Bambynek et al. (1972), and Freund (1975)]

S. Singh, D. Mehta, R. Garg, S. Kumar, M. Garg, N. Singh, P. Mangal, J. Hubbell, and P. Trehan, "Average L-Shell Fluorescence Yields for Elements 56<=Z=>92", Nucl. Inst. and Methods in Phys. Res. B51 (1990) 5- 10 [compares measured values to Scofield calculations and Hartree-Dirac-Slater calculations]

X-Ray Tube Spectra, Measured and Calculated

J. V. Gilfrich and L. S. Birks, "Spectral Distributions of X-Ray Tubes for Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis", Analytical Chemistry, 40, pp 1077-1080 (1968) [measured W tube at 15, 25, and 35 kV peak, and W, Cr, Cu, and Mo tubes at 45 kV constant]

J. W. Criss and L. S. Birks, "Calculation Methods for Fluorescent X-Ray Spectrometry -- Empirical Coefficients vs. Fundamental Parameters", Analytical Chemistry, 40, 1080 (1968) [tabulated spectrum for measured W tube at 50 kV peak]

J. V. Gilfrich, P. G. Burkhalter, R. R. Whitlock, E. S. Warden, and L. S. Birks, "Spectral Distribution of a Thin Window Rhodium Target X-Ray Spectrographic Tube", Analytical Chemistry, 43, 934 (1971) [measured]

D. B. Brown, J. V. Gilfrich, and M. C. Peckerar, "Measurement and calculation of absolute intensities of x-ray spectra", Journal of Applied Physics, 46, p 4537 (1975) [measured and calculated]

T. C. Loomis and H. D. Keith, "Spectral Distributions of X-Rays Produced by a General Electric EA-75 Cr/W Tube at Various Applied Constant Voltages", X-Ray Spectrometry, 5, pp 104-114 (1976); see also corrigendum, X-Ray Spectrometry, 6, p 17 (1977) [measurement]

J. W. Criss, "NRLXRF, A FORTRAN Program for X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis", Program No. DOD-00065, including Users' Guide and Users' Reference Manual, Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC), University of Georgia, Athens GA 30601 (July 1977) [calculation method]

J. W. Criss, "Fundamental-Parameters Calculations on a Laboratory Microcomputer", in Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 23, ed. by John R. Rhodes, Charles S. Barrett, Donald E. Leyden, John B. Newkirk, Paul K. Predecki, and Clayton O. Ruud, Plenum Publishing Corp., pp 93-97 (1980) [calculation method]

Michihiro Murata and Hiroyasu Shibahara, "An Evaluation of X-Ray Tube Spectra for Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis", X-Ray Spectrometry, 10, p 41 (1981) [calculation]

S. Planitz-Penno, U. Schulte, and G. Stork," ", Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem., 312, 600 (1982) [calculation] R. Tertain and N. Broll, "Spectral Intensity Distribution from X-Ray Tubes -- Calculated Versus Experimental Evaluations", X-Ray Spectrometry, 13, pp 134-141 (1984) [measurement and calculation]

P. A. Pella, L. Feng, and J. A. Small, "An Analytical Algorithm for Calculation of Spectral Distributions of X-Ray Tubes for Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis", X-Ray Spectrometry, 14, pp 125-135 (1985)

T. Arai, T. Shoji, and K. Omote, "Measurement of the Spectral Distribution Emitted from X-Ray Spectrographic Tubes", Advances in X-Ray Analysis, 29, pp 413-426 (1986)

N. Broll, "Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. Theory and Practice of the Fundamental Coefficient Method", X-Ray Spectrometry, v 15, pp 271-285 (1986) [calculation]

P. A. Pella, L. Feng, and J. A. Small, "Addition of M- and L-Series Lines to NIST Algorithm for Calculation of X-Ray Tube Output Spectral Distributions", X-Ray Spectrometry, 20, pp 109-110 (1991)

Norbert Broll, Pierre Caussin, and Markus Peter, "Matrix Correction in X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis by the Effective Coefficient Method", X-Ray Spectrometry, v 21, pp 43-49 (1992) [calculation]

Standard Reference Materials: Compositions and Measured Intensities

(For this category, we need more references suitable for testing calculation methods.)

S. D. Rasberry and K. F. J. Heinrich, "Calibration for Interelement Effects in X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis", Anal. Chem. 46, pp 81-89 (1974) [concentrations and measurements for Fe-Ni binaries (971, 972, 974, 983, 986, 987, 1159, 126B, 809B, 3987), Fe-Cr binaries (4061, 4062, 4065, 4173, 4181, 4183, 4184), Ni-Cr binaries (3995, 4002, 4003, 4004, 4011, 4012, 4013, 4014), and Fe-Ni-Cr ternaries (5074, 5181, 5324, 5321, 7271, 161, 1189, 5054, 5202, 5364, 1188)]

J. W. Criss, L. S. Birks, and J. V. Gilfrich, "Versatile X-Ray Analysis Program Combining Fundamental Parameters and Empirical Coefficients", Analytical Chemistry, v 50, pp 33-37 (1978) [partial compositions (Si, P, S, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Mo) and measurements for NBS SRMs 1151, 1152, 1153, 1154, 1155, 1159, 1160, 1171, 1184, and 1185]

N. Broll, "Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. Theory and Practice of the Fundamental Coefficient Method", X-Ray Spectrometry, v 15, pp 271-285 (1986) [concentrations and intensities for Si, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni in BAS (British Bureau of Analyzed Samples) stainless-steel standards SS 62, 63, 64, and 68; concentrations of Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Mo in BAS Nimonic standards 310 and 387, and in NBS stainless steels and high-temperature alloys 1152, 1155, 1158, 1172, 1267, 1206-2, 1207-1, 1207-2, and 1208-2; concentrations of P, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb in BAS phosphor bronzes SS 551, 552, 555, and 556; concentrations of Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe as oxides in BAS cement BCS 372 and NBS cements 633, 636, 637, 638, and 639]

Texts and Compilations Containing Data and/or Other References to Data

"Encyclopedia of X and Gamma Rays", ed. by G. L. Clark, Reinhold, N. Y. (1962)

L. S. Birks, "Electron Probe Microanalysis", Interscience, N. Y. (1963)

L. S. Birks, "X-Ray Spectrochemical Analysis", second ed., Interscience, N. Y. (1969)

R. Jenkins and J. L. de Vries, "Practical X-Ray Spectrometry", second ed., Springer-Verlag, N. Y. (1970)

H. A. Liebhafsky, H. G. Pfeiffer, E. H. Winslow, and P. D. Zemany, "X-Rays, Electrons, and Analytical Chemistry -- Spectrochemical Analysis with X-Rays", Wiley-Interscience, N. Y., 566 pp (1972)

"CRC Handbook of Spectroscopy", ed. by J. W. Robinson, CRC Press, Div. of Chemical Rubber Company, Cleveland, Ohio, Vol. 1, 913 pp (1974), Vol. III (19??)

Eugene P. Bertin, "Principles and Practice of X-Ray Spectrometric Analysis, second edition, Plenum Press, N. Y. (1975)

R. Tertain and F. Claisse, "Principles of Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis", Heyden, London (1982)

Ron Jenkins, R. W. Gould, and Dale Gedcke, "Quantitative X-ray Spectrometry", Marcel Dekker, Inc., N. Y. (1981) and second ed. (1995)

Gerald R. Lachance and Fernand Claisse, "Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Theory and Application", Wiley, Chichester (1995)