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|Author(s):||Nathan D. Marsh; Richard G. Gann; John R. Shields; Marc R. Nyden;|
|Title:||OBSERVATIONS ON THE GENERATION OF TOXIC PRODUCTS IN THE ISO/TS 19700 CONTROLLED EQUIVALENCE RATIO TUBE FURNACE AND THE CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE CONE CALORIMETER|
|Published:||June 24, 2013|
|Abstract:||Efforts are underway in several research groups to adapt existing flammability test methods for the determination of yields of toxic compounds such as CO, HCN, and HCl. These include the NFPA 269 / ASTM E 1678 radiant furnace apparatus, the ISO/TS 19700 tube furnace, the NFPA 270 / ISO 5659-2 smoke density chamber, and the ISO 5660-1 / ASTM E 1354 cone calorimeter. In each case a small (on the order of cm) specimen, cut from an item of furnishing or other building content, is burned and the evolved gases measured, in order to calculate the yields of toxic gases, ideally for different fire stages such as well-ventilated flaming or post-flashover flaming. The goal of these efforts is to facilitate obtaining the yields of toxic gases from principal combustibles for use in fire safety engineering. This will enable managing the exposure of building occupants to fire effluent and, in turn, providing realistic time for their escape. In our own work, tested specimens representative of finished goods were: a particleboard with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) veneer, a polyurethane foam with a cotton/polyester cover fabric, or PVC clad, nylon insulated 3-conductor electrical cable. Gas volume fractions were monitored by a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer (CO, CO2), a paramagnetic gas analyzer (O2), and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (HCN, HCl, and other gases not detected in this study). These techniques were applied to the ISO/TS 19700 controlled equivalence ratio tube furnace and the ISO 5660-1 / ASTM E 1354 cone calorimeter, with the latter modified to have an enclosure and a gas delivery system allowing variable oxygen concentration. Gas samples were drawn continuously from the exhaust of both apparatus. Initially, the standard test procedures were followed. Subsequent variation in the tube furnace procedure included dicing the specimen, further decreasing the equivalence ratio (well ventilated flaming) or increasing it (post-flashover), increasing the mass|
|Proceedings:||13th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering|
|Dates:||June 24-26, 2013|
|Keywords:||fire, fire research, smoke, room fire tests, fire toxicity, smoke toxicity|
|Research Areas:||Fire Measurements|