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Publication Citation: Visual Evidence, Damage Estimates, and Timeline Analysis (NIST NCSTAR 1-5A)Chapter 9-Appendices A-M. Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster

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Author(s): William M. Pitts; Kathryn M. Butler; Valentine Junker;
Title: Visual Evidence, Damage Estimates, and Timeline Analysis (NIST NCSTAR 1-5A)Chapter 9-Appendices A-M. Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster
Published: September 01, 2005
Abstract: This report summarizes the collection and analysis of visual material used for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) World Trade Center (WTC) Investigation. The task consisted of four major subtasks: 1) identification, collection, data basing, and cataloging of visual material, 2) timing of material incorporated into the NIST visual database, 3) development of fire time lines and additional analyses based on the visual material, and 4) documentation. Procedures used for subtasks 1 and 2 are summarized. Two data bases were assembled containing 6,899 photographs and 6,977 video clips, with 3,279 of the photographs and 2,772 of the videos timed with 3 second or better accuracy. The primary output of the task is a series of Excel data sheets describing individual window observations (fire, smoke, and whether window is open or closed) on the four faces of both towers as a function of time. Fire behaviors are discussed and documented by a large number of images. Additional analyses include initial facade damage and fire behavior due to aircraft impacts, aircraft speeds, and the motion of WTC 2 resulting from the aircraft impact. Unusual fire behaviors are documented for both towers. Several hanging objects (possibly floor slabs:) observed inside WTC 2 and their changes with time are described. Other observations, including falling victims, falling streamers, and smoke marks on facade columns, are documented and related to the observed fire behaviors.
Citation: NIST NCSTAR - 1-5
Keywords: World Trade Center; high rise buildings; building collapse; disasters; fire safety; fire investigations; terrorists; terrorism; visual evidence; timeline analysis; damage; impact; aircraft impact; aircraft speeds; fire behavior; smoke; databases
Research Areas: Building and Fire Safety Investigations, World Trade Center Investigation, Building and Fire Research
PDF version: PDF Document Click here to retrieve PDF version of paper (44MB)