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NGP

Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Programs

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NGP Collected Publications

General
New Flame Suppression Chemistry
Suppressant Screening Tests
New and Improved Aerosol Suppressants
Improved Suppressant Delivery
Viability of New Suppression Technologies
Improved Fuel Tank Inertion

I. General

 

Gann, R. G., FY2004 Annual Report – Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program (NGP), NIST Technical Note 1466, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2005).

Gann, R. G., "Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program: FY2004 Progress," 2005, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006)

Gann, R. G., FY2003 Annual Report -- Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program (NGP), NIST Technical Note 1457, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2004).

Gann, R.G., "Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program: FY2002 Progress," 2003, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Gann, R. G., FY2002 Annual Report -- Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program (NGP), NIST Technical Note 1451, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. (2003).

Gann, R.G., FY2001 Annual Report -- Next Generation Fire Suppression FY2002 Annual Report -- Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program (NGP), NIST Technical Note 1445, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2002).

Gann, R.G., Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program: FY2000 Annual Report, NIST Technical Note 1437, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2001).

Gann, R.G., Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program: FY1999 Annual Report, NISTIR 6479, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2000).

Gann, R.G., "Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program - Technical Highlights," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Gann, R.G., "Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program (NGP)," Fire Technology 34, 363-371 (1999). Also available as NISTIR 6163, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (1998).

Finnerty, A.E., Peregino, P.J., Vande Kieft, L.J., Tucker, J.R., Weiland, D.E., Sheinson, R.S., Gann, R.G., Bennett, M.V., and Wheeler, J.A., "Fires Experienced and Halon 1310 Fire Suppression Systems in Current Weapon Systems," Report SURVIAC TR-00-007, Air Force Research Laboratory – Survivability and Safety Branch, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, (2003).

Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program Strategy (Update), Office of the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Science and Technology), 2000, available on the NGP web site: www.bfrl.nist.gov/866/NGP.

Next-Generation Fire Suppression Technology: Strategy for a National Program, Office of the Director, Defense Research and Engineering, 1996, available on the NGP web site: www.bfrl.nist.gov/866/NGP. 

 

II. New Flame Suppression Chemistry

 

Linteris, G.T., Rumminger, M.D., and Babushok, V.I., "Catalytic Inhibition of Laminar Flames by Metal Compounds," Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, in press, (2007).

Mather, J.D., and Tapscott, R.E., Environmentally Acceptable Extinguishants, Final Report, NIST GCR 06-901, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2007.

Linteris, G.T., "NGP Research on Fire Suppression Chemistry," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Mather, J.D., and Tapscott, R.E., "NGP Search for New Chemicals – Environmentally Acceptable Fire Suppressants," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Mather, J.D., and Tapscott, R.E., "Environmentally Acceptable Flame Extinguishants," 2005, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Jayaweera, T.M., Fisher, E.M., and Fleming, J.W., "Flame Suppression by Aerosols Derived from Aqueous Sprays Containing Phosphorus," Combustion and Flame 141, 308-321 (2005).

Linteris, G.T., Katta, V.R., and Takahashi, F., "Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Metallic Compounds for Suppressing Cup-burner Flames," Combustion and Flame 138, 78- 96 (2004).

Linteris, G., Limits to Effectiveness of Metal-containing Fire Suppressants, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, NISTIR 7177, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2004.

Mather, J.D, and Tapscott, R.E., "Environmentally Acceptable Flame Extinguishants," 2004, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Donnelly, M.K., Harris, R.H., Yang, J.C., CF3I Stability under Storage, NIST TN 1452, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2004.

Fleming, J.W., and Williams, B.A., Mechanisms of Ultra-high Efficiency Chemical Suppressants, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 2003.

Williams, B.A., and Fleming, J.W., Influence of Bond Energies on Catalytic Flame Inhibition: Implications for the Search for New Fire Suppressants, NRL/MR/6180-03-8728, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC, 2003.

Shreeve, J.M., Singh, R.P., Tapscott, R.E., and Mather, J.D., Fluoroalkyl Phosphorus Compounds, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Report 2003/1/34501, New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, 2003.

Mather, J.D., and Tapscott, R.E., Shreeve, J.M., and Singh, R.P., "Fluoroalkyl Phosphorus Compounds," 2003, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Mather, J.D., and Tapscott, R.E., "Tropodegradable and other Environmentally Acceptable Flame Extinguishants," 2003, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Williams, B.A., and Fleming, J.W., CF3Br and Other Suppressants: Differences in Effects on Flame Structure," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 345-351 (2002).

Linteris, G.T., Rumminger, M., Babushok, V., Chelliah, H., Lazzarini, T., and Wanigarathne, P., Effective Non-Toxic Metallic Fire Suppressants, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD, 2002. Also available as NISTIR 6875, National Institute of Standards and Technology, (2002).

Rumminger, M.D., Babushok, V.I., and Linteris, G.T., "Temperature Regions of Optimal Chemical Inhibition of Premixed Flames," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 329- 336, (2002).

Linteris, G.T., Knyazev, V.D., and Babushok, V.I., "Inhibition of Premixed Flames by Manganese and Tin Compounds," Combustion and Flame 129, 221, (2002).

Rumminger, M.D., and Linteris, G.T., "The Role of Particles in the Inhibition of Counterflow Diffusion Flames by Iron Pentacarbonyl," Combustion and Flame 128, 145 (2002).

Geiss, K.T., Frazier, J.M., and Dodd, D.E., "Toxicity Screening of Halogenated Aliphatics Using a Novel In Vitro Volatile Chemical Exposure System," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Mather, J.D., and Tapscott, R.E., "Tropodegradable Bromocarbon Extinguishants – Compound Selection and Testing Issues," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Mather, J.D., and Tapscott, R.E., "Thermodynamics of Metal Agent Fire Extinguishment," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Tapscott, R.E., Shreeve, J.M., and Mather, J.D., "Fluoroalkyl Phosphorus Fire Extinguishing Agents," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Huie, R.E., Orkin, V.L., Louis, F., Kozlov, S.N., and Kurylo, M.J., "Effect of Bromine Substitution on the Lifetimes and Ozone Depletion Potentials of Organic Compounds," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Nogueira, M.F.M., and Fisher, E.M., "Effects of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate on Premixed Methane Flames," Combustion and Flame 132, 352-363 (2002).

Nogueira, M.F.M., Effects of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate on Premixed Methane Flames, Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, (2001). No Paper.

Lifke, J., Martinez, A., Tapscott, R.E., and Mather, J.D., Tropodegradable Bromocarbon Extinguishants, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Report 99/8/33350, New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque NM, 2001.

Tapscott, R.E., Sheinson, R.S., Babushok, V., Nyden, M.R., Gann, R.G., Alternative Fire Suppressant Chemicals: A Research Review with Recommendations, NIST Technical Note 1443, December, 2001.

Williams, B.A., "Sensitivity of Calculated Extinction Strain Rate to Molecular Transport Formulation in Nonpremixed Counterflow Flames," Combustion and Flame 124, 330-333 (2001).

MacDonald, M.A., Gouldin, F.C., and Fisher, E.M., "Temperature Dependence of Phosphorus-based Flame Inhibition," Combustion and Flame 125, 668-683 (2001).

Linteris, G.T., Rumminger, M.D., Babushok, V.I., and Tsang, W., "Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, and by Blends of Inert and Catalytic Agents," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 28, 2965-2972 (2000).

Rumminger, M.D. and Linteris, G.T., "The Role of Particles in Counterflow Diffusion Flames Inhibited by Iron Pentacarbonyl," Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Meeting of the United States Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, CA, March 2001.

Linteris, G.T., "Suppression of Cup-Burner Diffusion Flames by Super-Effective Chemical Inhibitors and Inert Compounds," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Linteris, G. T., Knyazev, V., and Babushok, V., "Premixed Flame Inhibition by Manganese and Tin Compounds," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Skaggs, R.R., McNesby, K.L., Daniel, R.G., Homan, B., and Miziolek, A.W., "Spectroscopic Studies of Low Pressure Opposed Flow Methane/Air Flames Inhibited By Fe(CO)5, CF3Br, or N2," Combustion Science and Technology 162, 1, (2001).

Williams, B.A. and Fleming, J.W., "Is CF3Br Representative Of Efficient Fire Suppressants?," Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland CA, paper 221, (2001).

Mather, J. D. and Tapscott, R. E., "Tropodegradable Bromocarbon Extinguishants – II and Fluoroalkyl Phosphorus Compounds- Research Update," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Linteris, G.T., Rumminger, M.D., and Babushok, V.I., "Premixed Carbon Monoxide-Nitrous Oxide-Hydrogen Flames: Measured and Calculated Burning Velocities with and without Fe(CO)5," Combustion and Flame 122, 58-75 (2000).

Rumminger, M.D., and Linteris, G.T., "Inhibition of Premixed Carbon Monoxide-Hydrogen- Oxygen-Nitrogen Flames by Iron Pentacarbonyl," Combustion and Flame 120, 451-464 (2000).

Rumminger, M.D. and Linteris, G.T., "The Role of Particles in the Inhibition of Premixed Flames by Iron Pentacarbonyl," Combustion and Flame 123, 82-94 (2000).

Linteris, G.T. and Rumminger, M.D., "Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Alone and with CO2 and CF3H," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Babushok, V., and Tsang, W., "Inhibitor Rankings for Alkane Combustion," Combustion and Flame 123, 488-506 (2000).

Williams, B.A. and Fleming, J.W., "On the Suitability of CF3Br as a Benchmark for Replacement Fire Suppressants," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Brabson, G.D., Garcia, M.M., Heinonen, E.W., Juarez, G., Mather, J.D., and Tapscott, R.E., Main Group Compounds as Extinguishants, New Mexico Engineering Research Institute Report No. 98/8/33380, U.S. Department of Defense, Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, (2001).

Pitts, W.M., Yang, J.C., Bryant, R.A., Blevins, L.G., and Huber, M., Characteristics and Identification of Super-effective Thermal Fire-extinguishing Agents, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, NIST Technical Note 1440, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2001.

Pitts, W.M.., Bryant, R.A., and Yang, J.C., "Thermal Agent Extinguishment of Two Types of Diffusion Flames," Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Meeting of the United States Sections of The Combustion Institute, Oakland, CA, (2001).

Pitts, W.M., Yang, J.C., and Bryant, R.A., "Fuel Effects on the Extinguishment of Laminar Diffusion Flames by Thermal Agents," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Pitts, W.M., and Blevins, L.G., "An Investigation of Extinguishment by Thermal Agents Using Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Opposed Jet Diffusion Flames," Proceedings of the Fifteenth Meeting of the U.S.-Japan Panel on Fire Research and Safety, NISTIR 6588, pp. 242-249, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (2000).

Yang, J.C., Bryant, R.A., Huber, M.L., and Pitts, W.M., "Experimental Investigation of Extinguishment of Laminar Diffusion Flames by Thermal Agents," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Skaggs, R.R., McNesby, Daniel, R.G., Homan, B., and Miziolek, A.W., "Measurement of Hydroxyl Radical during Suppression of Low Pressure, Opposed Flow Methane/Air Diffusion Flames by Fe(CO)5, CF3Br, and N2," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Wainner, R.T., McNesby, Daniel, R.G., Miziolek, A.W., and Babushok, V.I., "Experimental and Mechanistic Investigation of Opposed Flow, Propane/Air Flames by Phosphorus- containing Compounds," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Tapscott, R.E., and Mather, J.D., "Tropodegradable Fluorocarbon Replacements for Ozone Depleting and Global Warming Chemicals," Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 101, 209-213 (2000).

Williams, B.A., L'esperance, D.M., and Fleming, J.W., "Intermediate Species profiles in Low-pressure Methane/oxygen Flames Inhibited by 2-Heptafluoropropane: Comparison of Experimental Data with Kinetic modeling," Combustion and Flame 120, 160, (2000).

Zegers, E.J.P., Williams, B.A., Fisher, E.M., Fleming, J.W., and Sheinson, R.S., "Suppression of Nonpremixed Flames by Fluorinated Ethanes and Propanes," Combustion and Flame 121(3), 471-487 (2000).

Skaggs, R.R., Daniel, R.G., Miziolek, A.W., McNesby, K.L., Babushok, V.I., Tsang, W., and Smooke, M.D., "Spectroscopic Studies Of Inhibited Opposed Flow Propane/Air Flames," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Skaggs, R.R., Daniel, R.G., Miziolek, A.W., McNesby, K.L., "Spectroscopic Studies Of Inhibited Opposed Flow Propane/Air Flames," Proceedings of the 1st Joint Meeting of the United States Sections of the Combustion Institute, pp. 575-578, (1999).

Rumminger, M.D., Reinelt, D., Babushok, V., and Linteris, G.T., "Numerical Study of the Inhibition of Premixed and Diffusion Flames by Iron Pentacarbonyl," Combustion and Flame 116, 207-219 (1999).

Rumminger, M.D., and Linteris, G.T., "The Role of Particles in Flame Inhibition by Iron Pentacarbonyl," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Linteris, G.T., and Rumminger, M.D., "Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Carbon Dioxide, and Trifluoromethane Blends: Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects," Proceedings of the 1999 Fall Technical Meeting, Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, (1999).

Rumminger, M.D., and Linteris, G.T., "Numerical Modeling of Counterflow Diffusion Flames Inhibited by Iron Pentacarbonyl," Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, Poitiers, France, pp. 289-300 (1999).

Davis, M.P., Fleming, J.W., Williams, B.A., and Ladouceur, H.D., "Flow Field Considerations for Counter Flow Burners," Proceedings of the Fall Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, Raleigh NC, pp. 200-203, (1999).

Fleming, J.W., "Chemical Fire Suppressants: How Can We Replace Halon?" Proceedings of the Fall Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, Raleigh NC, pp. 16-23 (1999).

Pitts, W.M. and Blevins, L.G., "An Investigation of Extinguishment by Thermal Agents Using Detailed Chemical Modeling of Opposed-Flow Diffusion Flames," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Pitts, W.M., Yang, J.C., Huber, M.L., and Blevins, L.G., Characterization and Identification of Super-Effective Thermal Fire Extinguishing Agents - First Annual Report, NISTIR 6414, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (1999).

Tapscott, R.E., and Mather, J.D., "Tropodegradable Fluorocarbon Replacements for Ozone Depleting and Global Warming Chemicals," Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluorine Chemistry '99, Tokyo, (1999). No paper.

Tapscott, R.E., and Mather, J.D., "Research on Main Group Element Compounds and Tropodegradable Halocarbons as Halon Substitutes," Proceedings, Fire Suppression and Detection Research Application Symposium, Orlando, Fire Protection Research Foundation, Quincy, MA, (1999). No paper.

MacDonald, M.A., Jayaweera, T.M., Fisher, E.M., and Gouldin, F.C., "Inhibition of Non- Premixed Flames by Phosphorus-containing Compounds," Combustion and Flame 116, 166- 176 (1999).

MacDonald, M.A., Jayaweera, T.M., Fisher, E.M., and Gouldin, F.C., "Variation of Chemically Active and Inert Flame-Suppression Effectiveness with Stoichiometric Mixture Fraction," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 27, 2749-2756 (1998).

Babushok, V.I. and Tsang, W., "Influence of Phosphorus-containing Additives on Methane Flames," Proceedings of the 1st Joint Meeting of the United States Sections of the Combustion Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 587-590, (1999).

Mather, J.D. and Tapscott, R.E., "Tropodegradable Halocarbons and Main Group Element Compounds," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Fisher, E.M., Gillette, J.W., Gouldin, F.C., Jayaweera, T.M., and MacDonald, M.A., Chemical Flame Inhibition by Phosphorus-containing Compounds, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, 1999.

L'esperance, D., Williams, B.A., and Fleming, J.W, "Intermediate Species Profiles in Low Pressure Premixed Flames Inhibited by Fluoromethanes," Combustion and Flame 117, 709, (1999).

Fisher, E.M., Gouldin, F.C., Jayaweera, T.M., and MacDonald, M.A., Flame Inhibition by Phosphorus-containing Compounds, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, 1998.

Babushok, V.I., Tsang, W., Linteris, G.T., and Reinelt, D., "Chemical Limits to Flame Inhibition," Combustion and Flame 115, 551-560 (1998).

Rumminger, M.D., Reinelt, D., Babushok, V., and Linteris, G.T., "Inhibition of Flames by Iron Pentacarbonyl," 1998, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Noto, T., Babushok, V.I., Hamins, A., and Tsang, W., "Inhibition Effectiveness of Halogenated Compounds," Combustion and Flame 112, 147-160 (1998).

Skaggs, R.R., Daniel, R.G., Miziolek, A.W., McNesby, K.L., "Spectroscopic Studies of Inhibited Opposed Flow Propane/Air Flames," Proceedings of the 1998 JANNAF Combustion Meeting, (1998).

Linteris, G.T., Burgess, D.R., Babushok, V., Zachariah, M., Tsang, W., and Westmoreland, P., "Inhibition of Premixed Methane-air Flames by Fluoroethanes and Fluoropropanes," Combustion and Flame 113, 164, (1998).

Tapscott, R.E., Heinonen, E.W., and Mather, J.D., Identification and Proof Testing of New Total Flooding Agents: Toxicity and Global Environmental Assessment, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, New Mexico Engineering Research Institute Report 97/29/33010, (1998).

Tapscott, R.E., Mather, J.D., Heinonen, E.W., Lifke, J.L., and Moore, T.A., Identification and Proof Testing of New Total Flooding Agents: Combustion Suppression Chemistry and Cup-burner Testing, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, New Mexico Engineering Research Institute Report 97/6/33010, (1998).

Fisher, E.M., Williams, B.A., and Fleming, J.W., "Determination of the Strain in Counterflow Diffusion Flames From Flow Conditions," Proceedings of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, pp. 191-194, (1997).

MacDonald, M.A., Jayaweera, T.M., Fisher, E.M., and Gouldin, F.C., "Inhibition of Non- Premixed Flames by Dimethyl Methylphosphonate," Proceedings of the Central States Section of the Combustion Institute, (1997).

Jayaweera, T.M., MacDonald, M.A., Fisher, E.M., and Gouldin, F.C., "A Novel Method for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Low Volatility Flame Inhibitors with an Opposed-Jet Burner," Proceedings of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, (1997).

MacDonald, M.A., Jayaweera, T.M., Fisher, E.M., and Gouldin, F.C., "Inhibited Counterflow Non-Premixed Flames with Variable Stoichiometric Mixture Fractions," Proceedings of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, (1997).

Daniel, R.G., McNesby, K.L., Skaggs, R.R., Sagear, P., and Miziolek, A.W., "Spectroscopy of Inhibited Counterflow Diffusion Flames," Proceedings of the 1997 JANNAF Combustion Meeting, (1997).  

 

III. Suppressant Screening Tests

 

 Li, Y., Patten, G., Youn, D., and Wuebbles, D.J., "Potential Impacts of CF3I on Ozone as a Replacement for CF3Br in Aircraft Applications," Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6, 4559-4568, (2006).

Li, Y., and Wuebbles, D.J., "Potential Impacts of CF3I on Ozone as a Replacement for CF3Br in Aircraft Applications," 2005, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Kozlov, S.N., Orkin, V.I., Huie, R.E., and Kurylo, M.J., "OH Reactivity and UV Spectra of Propane, n-Propyl Bromide, and isopropyl Bromide," Journal of Physical Chemistry A 107, 1333-1338, (2003).

Orkin, V.I., Louis, F., Huie, R.E., and Kurylo, M.J., "Photochemistry of Bromine-Containing Fluorinated Alkenes: Reactivity toward OH and UV Spectra," Journal of Physical Chemistry A 106, 10195-10199, (2002).

Vinegar, A., "PBPK Modeling of Canine Inhalation Exposures to Halogenated Hydrocarbons," Toxicological Sciences 60, 20-27 (2001).

Vinegar, A., "Modeling Cardiac Sensitization Potential of Humans Exposed to Halon 1301 or Halon 1211 aboard Aircraft," Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 72, 928-936 (2001).

Yang, J.C., Donnelly, M.K., Prive, N.C., and Grosshandler, W.L., "An Apparatus for Screening Fire Suppression Efficiency of Dispersed Liquid Agents," Fire Safety Journal 36, 55-72 (2001).

Grosshandler, W., Hamins, A., Yang, J., McGrattan, K., and Presser, C., "Transient Application, Recirculating Pool Fire, Agent Effectiveness Screen: Final Report," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Jomaas, G., Roberts, B.T., DuBois, J., and Torero, J.L., A Study of the Mechanisms Leading to Re-ignition in a 'Worst Case' Fire Scenario, Final Report, Cooperative Agreement No. 70NANB8H0043, Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD20742-3031 (2000); also NIST GCR 01-806, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (2001).

Appendix A to Jomaas, G., Roberts, B.T., DuBois, J., and Torero, J.L., A Study of the Mechanisms Leading to Re-ignition in a 'Worst Case' Fire Scenario.

Appendix B to Jomaas, G., Roberts, B.T., DuBois, J., and Torero, J.L., A Study of the Mechanisms Leading to Re-ignition in a 'Worst Case' Fire Scenario.

Grosshandler, W., Hamins, A., McGrattan, K., and Presser, C., Transient Application, Recirculating Pool Fire, Agent Effectiveness Screen: Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, NISTIR 6733, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2001).

Grosshandler, W.L., Hamins, A., McGrattan, K.B., Charagundla, R., and Presser, C., "Suppression of a Non-Premixed Flame Behind a Step," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 28, 2957-2964 (2000).

Louis, F., Gonzalez, C., Huie, R. E., and Kurylo, M. J., "An ab Initio Study of the Kinetics of the Reactions of Halomethanes with the Hydroxyl Radical. Part 3. Reactivity Trends and Kinetics Parameter Predictions for the Potential Halon Replacements CH2FBr, CHFBr2, CHFClBr, CHCl2Br, and CHClBr2," Journal of Physical Chemistry A 105, 1599-1604 (2001). 122_3A_DLAFSS_Final_Report.pdf"> Yang, J.C., Donnelly, M.K., Privé, N., and Grosshandler, W.L., Dispersed Liquid Agent Fire Suppression Screen, Final Report To the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD, 2000.

Louis, F., Gonzalez, C., Huie, R. E., and Kurylo, M. J., "An ab Initio Study of the Kinetics of the Reactions of Halomethanes with the Hydroxyl Radical. Part 2: A Comparison between Theoretical and Experimental Values of the Kinetic Parameters for 12 Partially Halogenated Substituted Methanes," Journal of Physical Chemistry A 104, 8773-8778 (2000).

Louis, F., Gonzalez, C., Huie, R. E., and Kurylo, M. J., "An ab initio Study of the Reaction of Halomethanes with the Hydroxyl Radical. Part 1: CH2Br2, Journal of Physical Chemistry A 104, 2931-2938 (2000).

Huie, R.E., Louis, F., Gonzalez, C.A., and Kurylo, M.J., "An Ab initio-Based Screening Tool for the Atmospheric Lifetimes of Halon Replacements," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Grosshandler, W.L., Hamins, A., Charagundla, R., and Presser, C., "Suppression Effectiveness Screening for Impulsively Discharged Agents," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Vinegar, A., Jepson, G.W., Cisneros, M., Rubenstein, R., and Brock, W.J., "Setting Safe Acute Exposure Limits for Halon Replacement Chemicals Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling," Inhalation Toxicology 12, 751-763 (2000).

Vinegar, A., and Jepson, G., "Toxicological Assessment of Human Health Consequences Associated with Inhalation of Halon Replacement Chemicals; Section I: Physiologically- based Modeling of Halon Replacements for Human Safety Evaluations, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH, (2000).

Dodd, D.E., Jepson, G.W., and Macko, Jr., J.A., "Toxicological Assessment of Human Health Consequences Associated with Inhalation of Halon Replacement Chemicals; Section II: Human Health Safety Evaluation of Halon Replacement Candidates, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH, (2000).

Yang, J.C., Donnelly, M.K., Prive, N.C., and Grosshandler, W.L., Dispersed Liquid Agent Fire Suppression Screen Apparatus, NISTIR 6319, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (1999).

Orkin, V.L., Villenave, E., Huie, R.E., and Kurylo, M.J., 'Atmospheric Lifetimes and Global Warming Potentials of Hydrofluoroethers: Reactivity Toward OH, UV Spectra, and IR Absorption Cross Sections,' Journal of Physical Chemistry A 103, 9770-9779 (1999).

Yang, J.C., Donnelly, M.K., Prive, N.C., and Grosshandler, W.L., "Fire Suppression Efficiency Screening Using a Counterflow Cylindrical Burner," Proceedings of the 5th ASME/JSME Joint Thermal Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, (1999).

Nyden, M.R. and Skaggs, S.R, Screening Methods for Agent Compatibility with People, Materials and the Environment, NISTIR 6323, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD (1999).

Yang, J.C., Donnelly, M.K., Prive, N.C., and Grosshandler, W.L., "On the Design of an Apparatus for Screening Liquid Fire Suppressants," Proceedings of Interflam '99, 8th International Fire Science and Engineering Conference, pp.1343-1348, Edinburgh, Scotland, (1999).

Grosshandler, W.L., Charagundla, R., and Presser, C., "Suppressant Performance Evaluation in a Baffle-Stabilized Pool Fire," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Yang, J.C., Prive, N.C., Donnelly, M.K., and Grosshandler, W.L., "Recent Results from the Dispersed Liquid Agent Fire Suppression Screen," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Yang, J.C., Donnelly, M.K., Prive, N.C., and Grosshandler, W.L., "An Apparatus for Evaluating Liquid Fire Suppressants," 1998, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Grosshandler, W.L., Yang, J.C., and Cleary, T.G., "Screening Methods for New Fire Suppression Technologies," Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Ozone Protection Technologies, 643-650, (1996). 

 

IV. New and Improved Aerosol Suppressants

 

Chelliah, H.K., "Flame Inhibition/suppression by Water Mist: droplet Size/surface Area. Flame Structure, and Flow Residence Time Effects," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31, 2711-2719, (2007).

Fleming, J.W., and Sheinson, R.S., "A Next Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program Summary on the Properties of Aerosols," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Fuss, S.P., Chen, E.F., Yang, W., Kee, R.J., Williams, B.A., and Fleming, J.W., "Inhibition of Premixed Methane/Air Flames with Water Mist," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 361-368, (2002).

Sheinson, R.S., and Fleming, J.W., Suppression Effectiveness of Aerosols, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 2003.

Chelliah, H.K., Lazzarini, A.K., Wanigarathne, P.C., and Linteris, G.T., "Inhibition of Premixed and Non-premixed Flames with Fine Droplets of Water and Solutions," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 369-376, (2002).

Fleming, J.W., Williams, B.A., Sheinson, R.S., Yang, W., and Kee, R.J., "Water Mist Fire Suppression Research: Laboratory Studies," Second NRIFD Symposium - Science, Technology and Standards for Fire Suppression Systems, National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster, Tokyo, Japan, 2002.

Fleming, J.W., Williams, B.A., and Sheinson, R.S., "Suppression Effectiveness of Aerosols: The Effect of Size and Flame Type," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Chelliah, H.K., Lazzarini, A.K., Wanigarathne, P.C., and Linteris, G.T., "Comparison of the Fire Suppression Effectiveness of Sodium Bicarbonate Particles and Fine-water Droplets in Non-premixed and Premixed Flames," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Lazzarini, A.K., Krauss, R.H., Chelliah, H.K., and Linteris, G.T., "Extinction Conditions of Non-premixed Flames with Fine Droplets of Water and Water-NaOH Solutions," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 28, 2939-2945 (2001).

Linteris, G.T., and Chelliah, H.K., Powder-Matrix Systems for Safer Handling and Storage of Suppression Agents (4A/1 Final Report), NISTIR 6766, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (2001).

Zegers, E.J.P., Fuss, P., Fleming, J.W., Williams, B.A., Maranghides, A., and Sheinson, R.S., "Better Use of Water for Fire Suppression," 2001 NRL Review, pp. 102-104 (2001).

Sivathanu, Y., Oke, H.P., Fu, C., Wang, T., Sojka, P.E., Droplet Interaction with Hot Surfaces, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, En'Urga, Inc, West Lafayette IN, (2000).

Yang, J.C., Technical Support for the Study of Droplet Interactions with Hot Surfaces, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD, (2000).

Lyon, R., Development of a Self-Atomizing Form of Water, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, EER, Inc., NJ, (1998).

Fuss, S.P., Dye, D.J., Williams, B.A., and Fleming, J.W., "Inhibition of Premixed Methane- Air Flames by Submicron Water Mists," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Zegers, E.J.P., Williams, B.A., Sheinson, R.S., and Fleming, J.W., "Water Mist Suppression of Methane/Air and Propane/Air Counterflow Flames," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Zegers, E.J.P., Williams, B.A., Sheinson, R.S., and Fleming, J.W., "Dynamics and Suppression Effectiveness of Monodisperse Water Droplets in Non-Premixed Counterflow Flames," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 28, 2931-2938 (2000).

Lazzarini, A. K., Krauss, R. H., Chelliah, H. K., and Linteris, G. T., "Extinction of Counterflow Diffusion Flames with Fine-Water Droplets," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Wanigarathne, P.A., Krauss, R. H., Chelliah, H. K., and Davis, R.J., "Fire Suppression by Particulates Containing Metallic Compounds," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Fuss, S.P., Dye, D.J., Williams, B.A., and Fleming, J.W., "Inhibition of Premixed Methane- Air Flames by Water Mist," Proceedings of the Fall Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, Raleigh NC, pp. 105-108, (1999).

Zegers, E.J.P., Williams, B.A., Sheinson, R.S., and Fleming, J.W., "Water Mist Suppression of Non-Premixed Counterflow Flames," Proceedings of the Fall Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, Raleigh NC, pp. 109-112, (1999).

Fu, C., Sojka, P.E., and Sivathanu, Y.R., "Water Mist Impingement onto a Heated Surface," Paper No: AJTE99-6367. Proceedings of the 5th Joint ASME/JSME Joint Thermal Engineering Conference, (1999).

Fu, C., Sojka, P.E., and Sivathanu, Y.R., "On the Interaction between Evaporating Sprays and Heated Surfaces," Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Indianapolis, pp. 271-276 (1999).

Oke, H.P., An Experimental Study of Flame Spread Over PMMA Subject to a Water Mist, M.S. Thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, (November, 1999). No Paper.

Williams, B.A. and Fleming, J.W., "Suppression Mechanisms of Alkali Metal Compounds," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Tan, N.C.B., DeSchepper, D.C., and Balogh, L., Dendritic Polymers as Fire Suppressants, ARL-TR-2071, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen, MD, (1999).

Lentati, A.M. and Chelliah, H.K., "Dynamics of Water Droplets in a Counterflow Field and Their Effect on Flame Extinction," Combustion and Flame 115, 158-179 (1998).

Berman, C.H., Andersen, Jr., O.P., and Hoenig, S.A., Electrically Charged Water Mists for Extinguishing Fires, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, (1998).

Fleming, J.W., Reed, M.D., Zegers, E.J.P., Williams, B.A., and Sheinson, R.S., "Extinction Studies of Propane/Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames: The Effectiveness of Aerosols," 1998, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Yang, J.C., Chien, W., King, M., and Grosshandler, W.L., "A Simple Piezoelectric Droplet Generator," Experiments in Fluids 23, 445, (1997).

Reed, M.D., Fleming, J.W., Williams, B.A., and Sheinson, R.S., "Laboratory Evaluation of Bicarbonate Powders as Fire Suppressants," Proceedings of the International Conference on Ozone Protection Technologies, pp. 333-334, Baltimore MD, (1997).

Reed, M.D., Williams, B.A., Sheinson, R.S. and Fleming, J.W., "Behavior of Bicarbonate Powders in Counterflow Diffusion Flames," Proceedings of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, Hartford CT, pp. 83-86 (1997). 

 

V.Improved Suppressant Delivery

 

 Hewson, J.C., and Keyser, D.R., Suppression of Pool Fires with HFC-125 in a Simulated Engine Nacelle, Technical Report SAND2007-3442, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM, 2007.

Yang, J.C., and Keyser, D.R., "Fluid Dispensing and Dispersion," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Bein, D., "A Review of the History of Fire Suppression on U.S. DoD Aircraft," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Grosshandler, W.L., Cyphers, D., and Holland, G., "NGP Advances in Powder Panel and Propellant Technologies," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Presser, C., and Avedisian, C.T., "Transport of High Boiling-Point Fire Suppressants in a Droplet-Laden Homogeneous Turbulent Flow Past a Heated Cylinder," Atomization and Sprays, 16 (6), 627-656, (2006).

Presser, C., Papadopoulos, G., and Widmann, J.F., "PIV Measurements of Water Mist Transport in a Homogeneous Turbulent Flow past an Obstacle," Fire Safety Journal 41, 580- 604, (2006).

Yoon, S.S., DesJardin, P.E., Presser, C., Hewson, J.C., and Avedisian, C.T., "Numerical Modeling and Experimental Measurements of Water Spray Impact and Transport over a Cylinder," International Journal of Multiphase Flow 32, 132-157, (2006).

Disimile, P.J., Tucker, J.R., Croswell, B., and Davis, J.M., "The Transport of Water Sprays Past Generic Clutter Elements Found Within Engine Nacelles," Fire Safety Journal 40, 65-78 (2005).

Disimile, P.J., and Davis, J.M., "Characterization of a 2-D Pool Fire Simulator," 2005, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Davis, J.M., and Disimile, P.J., "The Effect of Measurement Volume Size on Phase Doppler Anemometer Measurements of Glass Microspheres," 2005, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Disimile, P.J., Tucker, J.R., Croswell, B., and Davis, J.M., "The Transport of Water Sprays Past Generic Clutter Elements Found Within Engine Nacelles," 2005, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Swanson, L.A., Davis, J.M., and Disimile, P.J., "Vortex Entrainment and Separation using Flow Superposition," Journal of Visualization 9(1), (2006).

Keyser, D.R., and Hewson, J.C., "Assessment of Fire Suppression Simulations Using Full- scale Engine Nacelle Tests," 2005, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Hewson, J.C., and Keyser, D.R., "Predicting Fire Suppression in an Engine Nacelle," 2004, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Keyser, D.R., and Hewson, J.C., "Fire Suppressant Distribution in an Engine Nacelle," 2004, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Bein, D., "In-flight Suppressant Deployment Temperatures," 2004, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Fleming, J.W., and Yang, J.C., "Modeling Study of the Behavior of Liquid Fire Suppression Agents in a Simulated Engine Nacelle," 2004, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Disimile, P.J., Tucker, J.R., Stern, J., Mehl, L., and Croswell, B.J., "Velocity and Drop Size Distributions Downstream Generic Clutter Elements Found Within Engine Nacelles," 2004, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Yang, J.C., Manzello, S.L., Nyden, M.R., and Connaghan, M.D., "Cold Discharge of CF3I in a Simulated Aircraft Engine Nacelle," Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, International Association for Fire Safety Science, pp. 715-726, (2003).

Hamins, A., McGrattan, K., and Forney, G., Unwanted Accelerated Burning After Suppressant Delivery, NIST Special Publication 1004, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2003)

Presser, C., Parametric Investigation of Droplet Atomization and Dispersion of Liquid Fire Suppressants, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (2003).

Hewson, J.C., Tieszen, S.R., Sundberg, W.D., and DesJardin, P.E., "CFD Modeling of Fire Suppression and Its Role in Optimizing Suppressant Distribution," 2003, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Cyphers, D.C., Frederick, S.A., and Haas, J.P., "Demonstrating Enhanced Powder Panels," 2003, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Fallis, S., Reed, R., Weirenga, P., and Holland, G.F., "Advanced Propellant/Additive Development for Fire Suppressing Systems," 2003, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Presser, C., and Avedisian, C.T., "Phase Doppler Measurements of Liquid Agent Transport over a Heated Cylinder," 2003, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Cyphers, D.C., Enhanced Powder Panels, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Skyward, Ltd., Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 2003.

Yang, J.C., Manzello, S.L., Nyden, M.R., and Connaghan, M.D., "Discharge Of CF3I in a Cold Simulated Aircraft Engine Nacelle," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Cyphers, D.C., Frederick, S.A., and Haas, J.P., "Enhanced Powder Panels," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Presser, C., Widmann, J., and Papadopoulos, G., "Liquid Agent Transport Around Solid Obstacles," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

DesJardin, P.E., Presser, C., Disimile, P.J., and Tucker, J.R., "A Droplet Impact Model for Agent Transport in Engine Nacelles," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Bennett, M.V., "Intumescent "Instant Firewalls" for Low-Cost Fire Protection," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Fallis, S., Reed, R., McCormick, J.L., and Holland, G.F., "Advanced Propellant/Additive Development for Fire Suppressing Gas Generators: Development + Test," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Black, A.R., Suo-Anttila, J.M., Disimile, P.J., and Tucker, J.R., Numerical Predictions and Experimental Results of Air Flow in a Smooth Quarter-scale Nacelle, 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, paper 2002-0856, (2002).

Black, A.R., Suo-Anttila, J.M., Gritzo, L.A., Disimile, P.J., and Tucker, J.R., Numerical Predictions and Experimental Results of Air Flow in a Smooth Quarter-scale Nacelle, Report SAND2002-1319, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (2002).

DesJardin, P.E., Nelsen, J.M., Gritzo, L.A., and Ghee, T.A., On the Development of a Subgrid Scale Clutter Model, 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, paper 2002-0984, (2002).

Presser, C., Widmann, J.F., DesJardin, P.E., and Gritzo, L.A., Measurement and Numerical Prediction of Homogeneous Turbulent Flow over a Cylinder: A Baseline for Droplet-laden Flow Studies, 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, paper 2002-0905, (2002).

Takahashi, F., Schmoll, W.J., Strader, E.A., and Belovich, V.M., "Suppression Behavior of Obstruction-Stabilized Pool Flames," Combustion Science and Technology 163, 107-130, (2001).

Yang, J.C., Nyden, M.R., and Manzello, S.L., "Cold Discharge of CF3I in a Simulated Aircraft Engine Nacelle," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

DesJardin, P.E., Nelsen, J.M., Gritzo, L.A., Lopez, A.R., Suo-Anttila, J.M., Keyser, D.R., Ghee, T.A., and Disimile, P.A., "Towards Subgrid Scale Modeling of Suppressant Flow in Engine Nacelle Clutter," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Presser, C., Widmann, J.F., DesJardin, P.E., and Gritzo, L.A., "Measurements and Numerical Predictions of Liquid Agent Dispersal Around Solid Obstacles," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Bennett, M.V., A Method for Extinguishing Engine Nacelle Fires By Use of Intumescent Coatings, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Dayton, OH, (2001).

Tuzla, K., Palmer, T., Chen, J., Sundaram, R., Yeung, W., Development of Computer Program for Fire Suppressant Fluid Flow Final Technical Report Volume I -- Main Report (6B1 Suppressant Flow Through Piping Final Report Vol. 1), Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, September, Lehigh university, Bethlehem, PA, (2000)

Tuzla, K., Palmer, T., Chen, J., Sundaram, R., Yeung, W., Development of Computer Program for Fire Suppressant Fluid Flow Final Technical Report Volume II -- Input Manual for the Program Experimental Data Assessment of the Program (6B1 Suppressant Flow Through Piping Final Report Vol. 2), Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Lehigh university, Bethlehem, PA, (2000).

Fallis, S.; Reed, R.; McCormick, J. L.; Wilson, K. A.; Holland, G F., "Advanced Propellant/Additive Development for Fire Suppressing Gas Generators: Hybrid Systems," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Fallis, S.; Reed, R.; Lu, Y.C.; Wierenga, P.H.; Holland, G F., "Advanced Propellant/Additive Development for Fire Suppressing Gas Generators," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

DesJardin, P.E., Gritzo, L.A., and Tieszen, S.R., "Modeling the Effect of Water Spray Suppression on Large-scale Pool Fires," in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Takahashi, F., Schmoll, W.J., Strader, E., and Belovich, V.M., "Suppression of a Non- premixed Flame Stabilized by a Backward-Facing Step," Combustion and Flame 122, 105- 116 (2000).

Takahashi, F., Schmoll, W. J., and Belovich, V. M., "Suppression of Bluff-Body Stabilized Pool Flames," AIAA 37th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Paper No. 99-0327, (1999).

Takahashi, F., Schmoll, W. J., and Belovich, V. M., "Stabilization and Suppression of a Diffusion Flame Behind a Step," Proceedings of the 1st Joint U.S. Sections Meeting of the Combustion Institute, Washington DC, (1999).

Takahashi, F., Schmoll, W. J., E. A. Strader, and Belovich, V. M., "Effects of Obstruction on Fire Suppression Efficiency," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Tieszen, S.R. and Lopez, A.R., "Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Takahashi, F., Schmoll, W.J., and Belovich, V.M., "Suppression of Bluff-body Stabilized Flames," Paper AIAA 98-3529, AIAA/ASME/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, (1998).

Takahashi, F., Schmoll, W. J., and Belovich, V. M., :Extinction of Bluff-Body Stabilized Diffusion Flames," Proceedings of the Spring Technical Meeting of the Central States Section of the Combustion Institute, Paper no. 37, (1998).

Bennett, M.V., "Examining the Feasibility of Extinguishing Engine Nacelle Fires by the Strategic Placement of Intumescent Materials," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Bennett, M.V., "A Method for Extinguishing Engine Nacelle Fires By Use of Intumescent Coatings," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD- ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006). 

 

VI. Viability of New Suppression Technologies

 

Bennett, J.M., "NGP Life-cycle Cost Analysis of Aircraft Fire Suppression Systems," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

McNesby, K.L., and Johnsson, E.L., Instrumentation for Bench- and Large-scale Test Fixtures," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Bennett, J.M., "Verification of NGP Fire Suppression principles," 2006, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST Special Publication 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2006.

Johnsson, E.L., Mulholland, G.W., Fraser, G.T., Leonov, I.I., and Golubiatnikov, G.Y., Development of a Fast-response Fire Suppressant Concentration Meter, NIST Technical Note 1464, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2004).

Johnsson, E.L., Mulholland, G.W., Fraser, G.T., Leonov, I.I., and Golubiatnikov, G.Y., Description and Usage of a Fast-response Fire Suppressant Concentration Meter, NIST Technical Note 1463, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2004).

Davis, J.M., and Disimile, P.J., "Effect of Optical Configuration Selection on Phase Doppler Anemometer Fire Suppressant Nozzle Characterizations," 2004, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Kolleck, M.L., Bennett, M.V., and Mercer, K.L., Cost Analysis of Aircraft Dry Bay Fire Suppression Systems, SURVIAC Report, Booz Allen Hamilton, Dayton, OH, (2003). Restricted Distribution.

Kolleck, M.L., Bennett, M.V., and Mercer, K.L., Cost Analysis of Fire Suppression Systems For Fighter Aircraft, SURVIAC Report TR-01-005, Booz Allen Hamilton, Dayton, OH, (2002). Restricted Distribution.

Kolleck, M.L., Bennett, M.V., and Mercer, K.L., Cost Analysis of Fire Suppression Systems For Cargo Aircraft, SURVIAC Report TR-00-006, Booz Allen Hamilton, Dayton, OH, (2002). Restricted Distribution.

Kolleck, M.L., Bennett, M.V., and Mercer, K.L., Cost Analysis of Fire Suppression Systems For Rotary-Wing Aircraft, SURVIAC Report TR-02-007, Booz Allen Hamilton, Dayton, OH, (2002). Restricted Distribution.

Kolleck, M.L., Bennett, M.V., and Mercer, K.L., Cost Analysis of Fire Suppression Systems Methodology Using Altered Fire Suppression Performance, SURVIAC Report TR-01-006, Booz Allen Hamilton, Dayton, OH, (2002). Restricted Distribution.

Bennett, J.M., and Kolleck, M.L., "Cost Analysis of Fire Suppression Systems," 2002, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

McNesby, K.L., Miziolek, A.W., and Skaggs, R.R., Laser-Based Instrumentation for Real- Time, In-Situ Measurements of Combustible Gases, Combustion By-Products, & Suppression Concentrations, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen MD, 2002.

Bennett, J.M. and Kolleck, M.L., "Cost Analysis of Fire Suppression Systems," 2001, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Skaggs, R.R., Daniel, R.G., Miziolek, A.W., McNesby, K.L., Herud, C., Bolt, W.R., and Horton, D., Diode Laser Measurements of HF Concentrations from Heptane/Air Pan Fires Extinguished by FE-36 and FE-36 Plus Ammonium Polyphosphate, ARL-TR-2143, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen, MD, (2000).

McNesby, K.L., Wainner, R.T., Daniel, R.G., Skaggs, R.R., Morris, J.B., Miziolek, A.W., Jackson, W.M., and McLaren, I.A., "Detection and Measurement of Middle Distillate Fuel Vapors Using Tunable Diode Lasers," Applied Optics 40, 840-845 (2001).

McNesby, K.L., Wainner, R.T., Miziolek, A.W., Jackson, W.M., and McLaren, I.A., "High Sensitivity Laser Absorption Measurements of Broad Band Absorbers in the Near Infrared Spectral Region," Applied Optics 39, 5006-5011 (2000).

McNesby, K.L., Miziolek, A.W., and McLaren, I.A., "Rapid High Sensitivity Laser Absorption Measurements of Broad Band Absorbers in the Near Infrared Spectral Region," Proceedings of 2000 Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Topical Meeting Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, pp. 80-83, (2000).

Lancaster, E.D., McNesby, K.L., Daniel, R.G., and Miziolek, A.W., "Spectroscopic Analysis of Fire Suppressants and Refrigerants by Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy," Applied Optics 38, 1476-1480 (1999). Also issued as ARL-TR 2300, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen MD (2000).

McNesby, K.L., Wainner, R.T., Miziolek, A.W., Jackson, W.M., and McLaren, I.A., "Detection and Measurement of Middle Distillate Fuel Vapors Using Tunable Dye Lasers," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Bennett, M.V., "Relative Benefit Assessment of Fire Protection System Changes," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Skaggs, R.R., Daniel, R.G., Miziolek, A.W., McNesby, K.L., Herud, C., Bolt, W.R. and Horton, D., "Diode Laser Measurements of HF Concentrations From Heptane/Air Pan Fires Extinguished by FE-36 And FE-36 Plus Ammonium Polyphosphate," Proceedings of the International Society for Optical Engineering: Photonics East, 156f (1999).

McNesby, K.L., Skaggs, R.R., and Miziolek, A.M., Diode Laser-Based Measurements of Hydrogen Fluoride Gas during Chemical Suppression of Fires, ARL Technical Report, ARL- TR-1785, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen, MD, (1999).

McNesby, K.L., Skaggs, R.R., Miziolek, A.W., and McLaren, I.A., "Diode Laser-Based Sensor for Fast Measurement of Binary Gas Mixtures," 1999, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

Skaggs, R.R., Daniel, R.G., Miziolek, A.W., McNesby, K.L., Herud, C., Bolt, W.R., and Horton, D., "Diode Laser Measurements of HF Concentrations Produced from Heptane/Air Pan Fires Extinguished By FE-36, FM-200, FE-36 Plus APP, or FM-200 Plus APP," Applied Spectroscopy, 53, 1143-1148 (1999).

Bennett, M.V., "Use of the Department of Defense Operational Requirements-Base Casualty Assessment (ORCA) Software System to Determine Occupant Response to Fire and the Extinguishment Process," Human Behavior in Fire, Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Belfast, Northern Ireland, pp. 769-777 (1998).

Williamson, C.K, McNesby, K.L., Daniel, R.G., and Miziolek, A.W., "Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Real-Time Detection of Halon Alternative Agents," Analytical Chemistry, 70, 1186-1191 (1998).

McNesby, K.L., Daniel, R.G., Skaggs, R.R., Miziolek, A.W., and Miser, C.S., "Near-Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Diagnostics in Laboratory and Real-Scale Inhibited Flames," Proceedings of Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Topical Meeting, p. 203, (1998).

McNesby, K.L., Skaggs, R.R., and Miziolek, A.M., "Diode Laser-Based Measurements of Hydrogen Fluoride Gas During Chemical Suppression of Fires," Applied Physics B, 67, 443- 447 (1998).

McNesby, K.L., Skaggs, R.R., Miziolek, A.W., Clay, M., Hoke, S.H., and Miser, C.S., "Diode Laser-Based Measurements Of Fuels, Oxidizers, and Combustion Products During Fire Suppressant Testing," 1998, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).

McNesby, K.L., Daniel, R.G., Miziolek, A.W., and Modiano, S.H., "Optical Measurement of Toxic Gases Produced During Firefighting Using Halons," Applied Spectroscopy 51, 678- 683, (1997). Also available as ARL Report ARL-TR-1349, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen, MD, (1997). 

 

VII. Improved Fuel Tank Inertion

 

Bennett, M.V., Review of Technologies for Active Suppression for Fuel Tank Explosions, Final Report to the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Booz- Allen & Hamilton, Dayton, OH, (2000). Restricted Distribution.

Bennett, M.V., "Review of Technologies for Active Suppression of Fuel Tank Explosions," 2000, in Gann, R.G., Burgess, S.R., Whisner, K.C., and Reneke, P.A., eds., Papers from 1991-2006 Halon Options Technical Working Conferences (HOTWC), CD-ROM, NIST SP 984-4, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2006).