Fire on the Web
(C) Closely Related Papers
1. R.E. Mitchell, A.F. Sarofim, and L.A. Clomburg, Combustion and Flame 37:201-206 (1980). Partial Equilibrium in the Reaction Zone of Methane-Air Diffusion Flames; and Combustion and Flame 37:227-244 (1980). Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Confined Laminar Diffusion Flames.
2. J.D. Bittner and J.D Howard, Eighteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 1105-1116 (1981). Composition Profiles and Reaction Mechanisms in a Near-Sooting Premixed Benzene/Oxygen/Argon Flame.
J.A. Cole, J.D. Bittner, J.P. Longwell, and J.B. Howard, Combustion and Flame 56:51-70 (1984). Formation Mechanisms of Aromatic Compounds in Aliphatic Flames.
P.R. Westmoreland, J.B. Howard, and J.P. Longwell, Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 783-782 (1986). Tests of Published Mechanisms by Comparison with Measured Laminar Flame Structure in Fuel-Rich Acetylene Combustion.
3. R.J. Santoro, H.G. Semerjian, and R.A. Dobbins, Combustion and Flame 51:203-218 (1983). Soot Particle Measurements in Diffusion Flames.
R.J. Santoro, and H.G. Semerjian, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1984, pp. 997-1006. Soot Formation in Diffusion Flames: Flow Rate, Fuel Species, and Temperature Effects.
P.R. Solomon, P.E. Best, R.M. Carangelo, J.R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R.J. Santoro, and H.G. Semerjian, Twentieth-First Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1986, pp. 1763-1771. FT-IR Emission/Transmission Spectroscopy for in Situ Combustion Diagnostics.
R.J. Santoro, T.T. Yeh, J.J. Horvath, and H.G. Semerjian, Combustion Science and Technology 53:89-115 (1987). The Transport and Growth of Soot Particles in Laminar Diffusion Flames.
R. Puri, M. Moser, R.J. Santoro, and K.C. Smyth, Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 1015-1022 (1992). Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of OH- Concentrations in the Oxidation Region of Laminar, Hydrocarbon Diffusion Flames.
R. Puri, R.J. Santoro, and K.C. Smyth, Combustion and Flame 97:125-144 (1994). The Oxidation of Soot and Carbon Monoxide in Hydrocarbon Diffusion Flames. Erratum: Combustion and Flame 102:226-228 (1995).
I.M. Kennedy, C. Yam, D.C. Rapp, and R.J. Santoro, Combustion and Flame 107:368-382 (1996). Modeling and Measurements of Soot and Species in a Laminar Diffusion Flame.
4. L.R. Boedeker and G.M. Dobbs, Combustion Science and Technology 46:301-323 (1986). CARS Temperature Measurements in Sooting, Laminar Diffusion Flames.
Ethylene/air and propane/air flames; note that the ethylene/air flame conditions were not exactly the same as those studied by Santoro.
5. H.F. Calcote, D.B. Olson, and D.G. Keil, Energy & Fuels 2:494-504 (1988). Are Ions Important in Soot Formation?
Re-produced our Wolfhard-Parker burner; temperatures and ion concentrations measured.
6. K. Seshadri, F. Mauss, N. Peters, and J. Warnatz, Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 559-566 (1990). A Flamelet Calculation of Benzene Formation in Co-Flowing Laminar Diffusion Flames.
Flame structure calculations compared to our results on velocity, temperature, stoichiometry, major species, and hydrocarbon species in the methane/air flame on the Wolfhard-Parker burner; benzene formation pathways elucidated.
7. Y.R. Sivathanu, and G.M. Faeth, Combustion and Flame 82:211-230 (1990). Generalized State Relationships for Scalar Properties in Nonpremixed Hydrocarbon/Air Flames.
NOTE that our data plotted here (their Ref. 9) were obtained in the pure methane/air flame, not the methane/air flame to which 0.9% toluene was added to the fuel stream. In addition, the CO profile was determined from mass spectrometric measurements, not calculated assuming that the water-gas shift reaction was equilibrated (see A. Hamins, D.T. Anderson, and J.H. Miller, Combustion Science and Technology 71:175-195 (1990).
8. J.H. Miller, R.R. Honnery, and J.H. Kent, Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 1031-1039 (1992). Modeling the Growth of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diffusion Flames.
M.A.T. Marro and J.H. Miller, Fall Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute (Princeton, NJ; October, 1993), pp. 283-286. The Validation of Conserved Scalar Relationships in Laminar CH4/Air Diffusion Flames.
M.A. Pivovarov, M.A.T. Marro, J.H. Miller, and M.D. Smooke, Fall Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute (Clearwater, FL; December, 1994), pp. 94-97. Conserved Scalar Relationships and Differential Diffusion in Laminar Axisymmetric Methane/Air Diffusion Flames.
R.R. Skaggs and J.H. Miller, Combustion and Flame 100:430-439 (1995). A Study of Carbon Monoxide in a Series of Laminar Ethylene/Air Diffusion Flames Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.
M.A.T. Marro, M.A. Pivovarov, and J.H. Miller, Combustion and Flame 111:208-221 (1997). Strategy for the Simplification of Nitric Oxide Chemistry in a Laminar Methane/Air Diffusion Flamelet.
9. K.M. Leung, and R.P. Lindstedt, Combustion and Flame 102:129-160 (1995). Detailed Kinetic Modeling of C1-C3 Alkane Diffusion Flames.
Computations performed in the rectilinear geometry; compared with our methane/air experimental results from the Wolfhard-Parker burner measurements in 9 figures.
10. K.C. Smyth and D.A. Everest, Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 1385-1393 (1996). The Effect of CF3I Compared to CF3Br on OH- and Soot Concentrations in Co-Flowing Propane/Air Diffusion Flames.
11. Y.R. Sivathanu and J.P. Gore, Combustion and Flame 110:256-263 (1997). Effects of Gas-Band Radiation on Soot Kinetics in Laminar Methane/Air Diffusion Flames.
Soot model calculations compared against our laser-induced incandescence data in the axisymmetric methane/air flame; our OH state relationship also utilized.
12. C.R. Kaplan, G. Patnaik, and K. Kailasanath, Combustion Science and Technology 131:39-65 (1998). Universal Relationships in Sooting Methane-Air Diffusion Flames.
Computations of soot concentrations and temperatures compared against our results in the axisymmetric methane/air flame (see C.R. Kaplan, C.R. Shaddix, and K.C. Smyth, Combustion and Flame 106:392-405 (1996)); computations of species concentrations in an axisymmetric geometry compared against results from T.S. Norton, K.C. Smyth, J.H. Miller, and M.D. Smooke, Combustion Science and Technology 90:1-34 (1993) in 7 figures. NOTE that in these comparisons of species concentrations (1) our O-atom profile was scaled to an estimated peak mole fraction of 2 x 10-3 and (2) our mass spectrometric measurements of the methyl radical concentrations (which are strict lower bounds only) were scaled upward by a factor of 20 for comparison with the Smooke predictions.
13. J. Zhang and C.M. Megaridis, Combustion and Flame 112:473-484 (1998). Soot Microstructure in Steady and Flickering Laminar Methane/Air Diffusion Flames.
14. J.D. Garman, and D. Dunn-Rankin, Combustion and Flame 115:481-486 (1998). Spatial Averaging Effects on CARS Thermometry of a Nonpremixed Flame.
Re-produced our Wolfhard-Parker burner to compare CARS temperatures against our thermocouple data in the methane/air flame.