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Optical Radiation Measurements

Spectroradiometric Source Measurements

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Technical Contact:
Charles E. Gibson (39010C-39060S)
Tel: 301-975-2329
E-mail: charles.gibson@nist.gov

Please contact the technical staff before shipping instruments or standards to the address listed below.

Mailing Address: 
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8441
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8441
Fax: 301-869-5700

Service ID
Number
Description of Services Fee ($)
NIST calibrates and issues a type 30A/T24/13 tungsten strip lamp with a mogul bi-post base.
39010C Spectral Radiance Standard, Tungsten Strip Lamp (225 nm to 2400 nm) (other spectral ranges are available under 39060S) 16072
NIST calibrates customer supplied integrating sphere sources and maps the source aperture.
39020C Spectral Radiance Standard, Integrating Sphere Source (300 nm to 1000 nm in 25 nm steps) 8938
39021C Spectral Radiance Standard, Integrating Sphere Source (300 nm to 2400 nm in 25 nm steps) 12407
NIST calibrates and issues an 1000 W, tungsten quartz-halogen lamp mounted in a medium bi-post base. The calibrations are performed at 50 cm.
39030C Spectral Irradiance Standard, 1000 W Tungsten Quartz-Halogen Lamp (250 nm to 450 nm) 11324
39031C Recalibration of 1000 W Tungsten Quartz-Halogen Lamp (250 nm to 450 nm) 7907
39032C Spectral Irradiance Standard, 1000 W Tungsten Quartz-Halogen Lamp (350 nm to 800 nm) 11324
39033C Recalibration of 1000 W Tungsten Quartz-Halogen Lamp (350 nm to 800 nm) 7907
39040C Spectral Irradiance Standard, 1000 W Tungsten Quartz-Halogen Lamp (250 nm to 1600 nm) 14273
39041C Recalibration of 1000 W Tungsten Quartz-Halogen Lamp (250 nm to 1600 nm) 10856
39045C Spectral Irradiance Standard, 1000 W Tungsten Quartz-Halogen Lamp (250 nm to 2400 nm) 16343
39046C Recalibration of 1000 W Tungsten Quartz-Halogen Lamp (250 nm to 2400 nm) 13169
NIST calibrates and issues a 30 W deuterium arc lamp mounted in a medium bi-post base.
39050C Spectral Irradiance Standard, 30 W Deuterium Lamp (200 nm to 400 nm) 14298
39051C Recalibration of 30 W Deuterium Lamp (200 nm to 400 nm) 10605
39060S Special Tests of Radiometric Sources At Cost
Fees are subject to change without notice.

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Requests for the above calibration services are scheduled for completion within 90 days after the receipt of a purchase order and the test device.

Spectroradiometric Source Measurements (39010C-39060S)

The NIST Quality System is based on the International Standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999(E) General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.

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Spectral Radiance Lamps (39010C)

Tungsten strip lamps (30A/T24/13) are supplied by NIST as standards of spectral radiance. The lamps are calibrated at 34 wavelengths from 225 nm and 2400 nm, using a 0.6 mm wide by 0.8 mm high target area. The radiance temperature ranges from about 2650 K at 225 nm, to 2475 K at 654.6 nm, to 1610 K at 2400 nm

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Spectral Radiance Integrating Sphere Sources (39020C-39021C)

Customer supplied integrating sphere sources are calibrated as standards of spectral radiance. The sphere sources are calibrated every 25 nm from 300 nm up to 2400 nm using a 0.6 mm wide by 0.8 mm high target area. The source exit aperture is spatially mapped and the data is included in the Report of Calibration.

Table 7.1 Calibration Uncertainties for Spectroradiometric Source Measurement

Standard Wavelength (nm) Typical Values
(µW cm-2 nm-1 sr-1)
Relative Expanded
Uncertainty (k = 2)(%)
Tungsten strip lamp
spectral radiance standard
225 0.55 1.5
250 3.6 1.3
350 3.0 x 102 1.0
655 1.3 x 104 0.6
900 2.2 x 104 0.6
1700 1.1 x 104 0.5
2400 4.0 x 103 0.4
Standard Wavelength (nm) Typical Values
(µW cm-2 nm-1 SR-1)
Relative Expanded
Uncertainty (k = 2)(%)
Integrating sphere source
spectral radiance standard
300 0.40 1.1
500 38.0 0.5
700 120.0 0.4
900 150.0 0.7
1600 84.0 1.2
2400 10.0 3.0
Standard Wavelength (nm) Typical Values
(µW cm-2 nm-1)
Relative Expanded
Uncertainty (k = 2)(%)
Tungsten quartz halogen FEL lamp
spectral irradiance standard
250 0.02 1.7
350 0.85 1.3
655 17.0 0.7
900 23.0 0.6
1600 12.0 0.5
2400 4.0 1.1
Standard Wavelength (nm) Typical Values
(µW cm-2 nm-1)
Relative Expanded
Uncertainty (k = 2)(%)
Deuterium arc lamp
spectral irradiance standard
200 0.04 1.1
250 0.03 1.0
350 0.007 1.0
400 0.005 1.0

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Uncertainty for NIST Spectral Radiance Calibrations

Figure 1 Measurement Uncertainty for NIST Spectral Radiance Calibrations

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Spectral Irradiance Lamps (39030C)

Two types of spectral irradiance lamp standards are supplied by NIST. For general applications, tungsten-filament, 1000 W quartz-halogen FEL lamps are calibrated at 31 wavelengths from 250 nm to 2400 nm, or at a reduced set of wavelengths for narrower wavelength ranges. All calibrations are performed at a working distance is 50 cm. For ultraviolet applications, deuterium-arc lamps are calibrated at 21 wavelengths from 200 nm to 400 nm The deuterium lamps are intended primarily for use at wavelengths between 200 nm and 250 nm Although the shape of the spectral distribution of the deuterium lamps is stable over long periods of time, the absolute irradiance varies on the order of 12 % (k = 2). The uncertainty of the absolute irradiance can be reduced by approximately a factor of two by scaling the spectral irradiance of the deuterium lamp to the spectral irradiance of a tungsten-filament quartz-halogen FEL lamp standard over the wavelength range 250 nm to 300 nm, each time the lamp is operated.

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Special Tests of Radiometric Sources (39060S)

Spectroradiometric calibrations of integrating sphere, blackbody, and lamp sources are performed in the Facility for Automatic Spectral Calibrations (FASCAL). This instrument has the capability of performing spectral radiance measurements from 200 nm to 2500 nm and measuring radiance temperatures from 1050 K to 2700 K with an adjustable spectral bandwidth down to 0.1 nm. Spectral irradiance measurement capability from 200 nm to 2500 nm at flux levels down to 0.01 µWcm-2 nm-1 is also available. For both spectral radiance and irradiance measurements, a wide variety of sources and measurement geometries are possible. Other special tests requiring the capabilities of FASCAL are also performed, depending on the availability of equipment and personnel.

Uncertainty for NIST Spectral Irradiation Calibrations

Figure 2 Measurement Uncertainty for NIST Spectral Irradiation Calibrations.

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References-Spectroradiometric Source Measurements

Realization of the National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based spectral irradiance scale, H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, and P. Y. Barnes, Applied Optics 41 (28), 5879-5890 (2002).

Long-term Temporal Stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Spectral Irradiance Scale Determined with Absolute Filter Radiometers, H. W. Yoon, and C. E. Gibson, Applied Optics 41 (28), 5872-5878 (2002).

Understanding Your Calibration Sources is the Key to Making Accurate Spectroradiometric Measurements, H. W. Yoon, and C. E. Gibson, OE Magazine, 48, (July 2001).

Comparison of the absolute detector-based spectral radiance assignment with the current NIST-assigned spectral radiance of tungsten-strip lamps, H. W. Yoon, and C. E. Gibson, Metrologia 37, 429-432 (2000).

A CCPR international comparison of spectral radiance measurements in the air-ultraviolet, R. P. Lambe, R. D. Saunders, C. E. Gibson, and J. Hollandt, Metrologia 37 (1), 51-54 (2000).

Results of a NIST/VNIIOFI comparison of spectral-radiance measurements, R. D. Saunders, C. E. Gibson, K. D. Meilenz, V. I. Sapritsky, K. A. Sudarev, and B. B. Khlevnoy, Metrologia 3, 449 (1995).

The New International Temperature Scale of 1990 and its Effect on Radiometric, Photometric, and Colorimetric Measurements and Standards, K .D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and J. J. Hsia, CIE Proc. 22nd Session Melbourne 1991 no. 91, (1991).

Results of a CCPR Intercomparison of Spectral Irradiance Measurements by National Laboratories, J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and K. D. Mielenz, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647 (1991).

The 1990 NIST Scales of Thermal Radiometry, K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and J. J. Hsia, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95 (6), 621-629 (1990).

Spectroradiometric Determination of the Freezing Temperature of Gold, K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders and J. Shumaker, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 95 (1), 49-67 (Jan.-Feb. 1990).

The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90), H. Preston-Thomas, Metrologia 27, 2-310 (1990).

NBS Measurement Services: Spectral Irradiance Calibrations, J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 250-20 (Sept. 1987).

NBS Measurement Services: Spectral Radiance Calibrations, J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, and A. T. Hattenburg, Natl. Bur. Stand. (US), Spec. Publ. 250-1 (Jan. 1987).

Spectral irradiance standard for the ultraviolet: the deuterium lamp, R. D. Saunders, W. R. Ott, and J. M. Bridges, Appl. Opt. 17, 593 (1978).

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Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements

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Technical Contacts:
Jeanne M. Houston (39071C-39081S, 39100S)
Tel: 301-975-2327
E-mail: jeanne.houston@nist.gov

George Eppeldauer (39090S)
Tel: 301-975-2338
E-mail: george.eppeldauer@nist.gov

Maritoni Litorja (39200S)
Tel: 301-975-8095
E-mail: maritoni.litorja@nist.gov

Please contact the technical staff before shipping instruments or standards to the address listed below.

Mailing Address:
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8441
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8441
Fax: 301-869-5700

Service ID
Number
Description of Services Fee ($)
39071C UV Silicon Photodiodes 3855
39072C Recalibration of UV Silicon Photodiodes 1335
39073C Visible to NIR Silicon Photodiodes 4661
39074C Recalibration of Visible to NIR Silicon Photodiodes 3083
39075S Special Tests of NIR Photodiodes At Cost
39077C UV to Near-Infrared Silicon Photodiodes (Hamamatsu S2281) 5533
39078C Recalibration of UV to Near-Infrared Silicon Photodiodes (Hamamatsu S1337-1010BQ or S2281) 3855
39080S Special Tests of Radiometric Detectors At Cost
39081S Special Tests of Photodetector Responsivity Spatial Uniformity At Cost
39090S Special Tests of IR Detectors At Cost
39100S Special Tests of Irradiance Detectors At Cost
39200S Special Tests of Aperture Area At Cost

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This laboratory's quality system is based on the ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 standard and the ISO/IEC Guide 25.

UV Silicon Photodiodes (39071C)

NIST will supply the customer with a UDT Sensors, Inc. model UV100 silicon photodiode characterized in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. The UV silicon photodiode includes the measured spectral responsivity [A/W] from 200 nm to 500 nm in 5 nm steps. The 1 cm2 photosensitive area of the photodiodes is underfilled for the measurements with a beam of diameter 1.5 mm. The spectral responsivity is measured at radiant power levels of less than 20 µW. The bandpass of the measurement is 3 nm The spatial uniformity of responsivity over the photosensitive area is also measured at 350 nm

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Recalibration of UV Silicon Photodiodes (39072C)

Recalibration of UV silicon photodiodes previously supplied by NIST under (39071C) is performed by measuring spectral responsivity from 200 nm to 500 nm

Visible to Near-Infrared (NIR) Silicon Photodiodes (39073C)

NIST will supply the customer with a Hamamatsu model S2281 (previously a Hamamatsu S1337-1010BQ) windowed silicon photodiode characterized in the visible to near-IR spectral region. The spectral responsivity of the photodiode is measured from 350 nm to 1100 nm in 5 nm steps. The 1 cm2 photosensitive area is underfilled for the measurements with a beam of diameter 1.1 mm. The spectral responsivity is measured at radiant power levels of less than 1 µW. The bandpass of the measurement is 4 nm The spatial uniformity of responsivity over the photosensitive area is also measured at 500 nm

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Recalibration of Visible to Near-Infrared Silicon Photodiodes (39074C)

Recalibration of visible to near-infrared silicon photodiodes previously supplied by NIST under (39073C) is performed by measuring spectral responsivity from 350 nm to 1100 nm The spectral range can be extended to 200 nm for an additional fee (use Test # 39078C).

Special Tests of NIR Photodiodes (39075S)

Special tests of customer-supplied NIR photodiodes are performed by measuring spectral responsivity from 700 nm to 1800 nm A 1.1 mm diameter beam is centered on and underfills the photosensitive area. The spectral responsivity is measured at radiant power levels of less than 1 µW. The bandpass of the measurement is 4 nm Customers should communicate with Jeanne Houston to discuss details before submitting a formal request.

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UV to Near-Infrared Silicon Photodiodes (39077C)

NIST will supply customers with a Hamamatsu model windowed silicon photodiode characterized in the UV to near-IR spectral region. The spectral responsivity of the photodiode is measured from 200 nm to 1100 nm in 5 nm steps. The 1 cm2 photosensitive area of the photodiode is underfilled for the measurements. The spectral responsivity is measured with a beam of diameter 1.5 mm from 200 nm to 400 nm at radiant power levels of less than 20 µW. The bandpass of the measurement is 3 nm From 405 nm to 1100 nm the spectral responsivity is measured with a beam of diameter 1.1 mm in the 400 nm to 1800 nm spectral region at power levels less than 1 µW. The bandpass of the measurement is 4 nm in this spectral region. The spatial uniformity of responsivity over the photosensitive area is also measured at 500 nm

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Recalibration of UV to Near-Infrared Silicon Photodiodes (39078C)

Recalibration of silicon photodiodes previously supplied by NIST (under 39077C or 39073C) is performed by measuring spectral responsivity from 200 nm to 1100 nm

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Special Tests of Radiometric Detectors (39080S)

Special tests of radiometric detectors generally used in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions of the spectrum can be performed. Detector characteristics that can be determined in this special test include spectral responsivity and quantum efficiency (electrons per photon). For example, detectors responsivity can be measured between 193 nm and 1800 nm at power levels less than 4.0 µW. The relative expanded uncertainty is dependent on the wavelength and the individual item measured. Since special tests of this type are unique, details of the tests should be discussed with Jeanne Houston before submitting a formal request.

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Special Tests of Photodetector Responsivity Spatial Uniformity (39081S)

Special tests consisting of measuring the relative changes in responsivity across the photosensitive area (spatial uniformity) can be performed for customer-supplied photodetectors. The uniformity is typically measured at a single wavelength in 0.5 mm spatial increments with a beam diameter of 1.5 mm in the 193 nm to 400 nm spectral region at power levels less than 20 µW, and a beam of diameter 1.1 mm in the 400 nm to 1800 nm spectral region at power levels less than 1 µW. Customers should communicate with Jeanne Houston to discuss details before submitting a formal request.

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Special Tests of IR Detectors (39090S)

Special tests of customer-supplied ambient temperature infrared detectors can be performed in the 1.4 µm to 14 µm wavelength range. The special tests include spectral power and/or irradiance responsivity and spatial response measurements. The standard configuration uses a 2.4 mm diameter monochromatic beam to underfill the active area of the detector with an ƒ/4 incident beam. The monochromator output beam is chopped and has a power level higher than 1 µW. The NEP of the reference pyroelectric detector is 7 nW/Hz½. The optical bandpass of the measurement is ~ 1 % of the test wavelength. Customers should contact George Eppeldauer to discuss details before submitting a formal request.

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Special Tests of Irradiance Detectors (39100S)

Special tests of irradiance detectors generally used in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum can be performed. Irradiance responsivity of detectors can be measured between 193 nm and 1800 nm at power levels less than 200 µW/cm2. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a detector can be determined expressed in the unit amperes·mm2 per watt [A·mm2/W]. The relative expanded uncertainty is dependent on the wavelength and the individual item measured. Since special tests of this type are unique, details of the tests should be discussed with Jeanne Houston before submitting a formal request.

Special Tests of Aperture Area (39200S)

Measurements of the absolute surface area of optical apertures are available for circular, elliptical, and rectangular apertures. Measurements are made using non-contact video microscopy. The aperture is placed on an x-y translation stage. The relative locations of a series of edge points sufficient to accurately determine the aperture area are found by cataloging their location when they are centered at the focus of the stationary video microscope. Apertures with edges or diameters from 0.5 mm to 50 mm can be measured.

Uncertainty estimates are provided and will depend on the optical characteristics of the submitted test item. Diffraction corrections can also be provided if a description of the optical system in which the aperture is to be installed is provided, with no restriction on the minimum size of the aperture. Arrangements for aperture area measurements on submitted test items must be made before shipment. The decision to perform the measurements rests with NIST. Test items not accepted for measurement will be returned.

 

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Table 7.2 Detector Measurement Services Uncertainties

Relative Expanded Uncertainty (k = 2)[%]
Wavelength
[nm]
UV 100 (UV) S1337
(Visible)
GE (NIR) InGaAs
(NIR)
200 3.8 3.8    
250 1.3 1.3    
300 1.3 1.3    
350 1.8 1.8    
400 1.5 1.5    
450 0.38 0.24    
500 0.38 0.22    
550   0.20    
600   0.20    
650   0.20    
700   0.20 0.46 0.38
750   0.22 0.42 0.36
800   0.22 0.68 0.54
850   0.22 0.44 0.44
900   0.22 0.50 0.40
950   2.6 1.2 1.3
1000   1.7 0.9 0.9
1050   2.7 0.9 0.9
1100   4.2 0.52 0.50
1150     0.8 0.8
1200     1.4 1.5
1250     0.9 0.9
1300     0.9 0.9
1350     0.9 0.9
1400     1.2 1.2
1450     0.9 0.9
1500     1.0 1.0
1550     1.1 1.1
1600     1.4 1.3
1650     1.1 1.0
1700     1.7 2.2
1750     2.6 2.7
1800     3.4 4.2

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Table 7.3 NIST Spectroradiometric Detector Measurement Services

Service ID No. Item of Test Range Relative Expanded
Uncertainty
( = 2)
39071C UV Silicon Photodiodes (UDT UV 100) 200 nm to 500 nm 0.4 % to 3.8 %
39072C Retest of UV Silicon Photodiodes 200 nm to 500 nm 0.4 % to 3.8 %
39073C Visible to NIR Silicon Photodiodes (Hamamatsu S2281) 350 nm to 1100 nm 0.2 % to 4.2 %
39074C Retest of Visible to NIR Silicon Photodiodes
(Hamamatsu S1337-1010BQ or S2281)
350 nm to 1100 nm 0.2 % to 4.2 %
39075S Special Tests of NIR Photodiodes 700 nm to 1800 nm 0.4 % to 4 % *
39077C Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Silicon Photodiodes
(Hamamatsu S2281)
200 nm to 1100 nm 0.2 % to 4.2 %
39078C Retest of Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Silicon Photodiodes
(Hamamatsu S2281)
200 nm to 1100 nm 0.2 % to 4.2 %
39080S Special Tests of Radiometric Detectors 193 nm to 1800 nm 0.2 % to 5 % *
39081S Special Tests of Photodetector Responsivity Spatial Uniformity 193 nm to 1800 nm 0.0024 % to 0.05 % *
39090S Special Tests of IR Detectors 2 µm to 5.4 µm 
5.4 µm to 20 µm 
~1.5 % to ~5 %
39100S Special Tests of Irradiance Detectors 193 nm to 1800 nm 4 % to 13 % *

* Depends on photodetector and signal level.

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References-Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements

The new ultraviolet responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchroton Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III, P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, and K. R. Lykke, Review of Scientific Instruments, 72, (5), (May 2001).

Opto-Mechanical and Electric Design of a Tunnel-Trap Si Radiometer, G. Eppeldauer and D. Lynch, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105(6), 813-828 (2000).

Improved Near-Infrared Spectral Responsivity Scale, P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown and K. R. Lykke, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105(5), 689 (2000).

NIST Measurement Services: Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements: Ultraviolet, Visible, and Near-Infrared Detectors for Spectral Power, T. C. Larason, J. M. Houston, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US), Spec. Publ. 250-41, (2008).

NIST Measurement Services: Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements: Part III - Infrared Detectors, A. L. Migdall and G. Eppeldauer, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US), Spec. Publ. 250-42, (1998).

National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer, T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, and A. C. Parr, Appl. Opt. 35, 1056-1068 (1996).

Realization of a scale of absolute spectral response using the National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer, T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, and C. L. Cromer, Appl. Opt. 35, 4392-4403 (1996).

A National Measurement System for Radiometry, Photometry, and Pyrometry Based upon Absolute Detectors, A. C. Parr, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US), Tech. Note 1421 (1996).

Developing Quality System Documentation Based on ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 - The Optical Technology Division's Effort, S. S. Bruce and T. C. Larason, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US), Internal Report 5866 (1996). 

High Accuracy Measurement of Aperture Area Relative to a Standard Known Aperture, J. B. Fowler and G. Dezsi, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 100(3), 277-283, (1995).

Report on the CCPR-S2 Supplementary Comparison of Area Measurements of Apertures for Radiometry, M. Litorja and J. Fowler (Jan. 2007).

Summary of high-accuracy aperture-area measurement capabilities at the NIST, J. B. Fowler, R. D. Saunders, and A. C. Parr, Metrologia 37, 621-623 (2000).

Geometric area measurements of circular apertures for radiometry at NIST, J. Fowler and M. Litorja, Metrologia 40, S9-S12 (2003)..

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Program questions: Calibrations
Phone: 301-975-2200, Fax: 301-975-2950
NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8363, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8363