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Thermodynamic Quantities

Radiance Temperature Measurements

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Technical Contacts:
Charles E. Gibson
Tel: 301-975-2329
E-mail: charles.gibson@nist.gov

Please contact the technical staff before shipping instruments or standards to the address listed below.

Mailing Address:
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8441
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8441
Fax: 301-869-5700

Service ID
Number

Description of Services Fee ($)
Calibration reports are issued giving the radiance temperature of the blackbody at 649.71 nm versus the scale reading, output current, or output voltage.
35010C Radiance Temperature Standard, Disappearing Filament Optical Pyrometer (800 ºC to 2400 ºC, 4 to 12 points, 1 range) 8435
35020C Radiance Temperature Standard, Disappearing Filament Optical Pyrometer (each additional range up to 4200 ºC, only available with 35010C) 6123
35040C Radiance Temperature Standard, Disappearing Filament Optical Pyrometer (800 ºC to 4200 ºC, 1 range, 3 or fewer points) 4196
Calibration reports are issued giving the radiance temperature of the lamp at 649.71 nm versus the lamp current.
35050C Radiance Temperature Standard, Tungsten Strip Lamp (800 ºC to 2300 ºC, 6 to 16 points) 11905
35051C Recalibration of Tungsten Strip Lamp (800 ºC to 2300 ºC, 6 to 16 points) 9978
35060C Radiance Temperature Standard, Tungsten Strip Lamp ( 800 ºC to 2300 ºC, 5 or fewer points) 7665
35061C Recalibration of Tungsten Strip Lamp ( 800 ºC to 2300 ºC, 5 or fewer points) 5737
Calibration reports are issued giving the radiance temperature of the reference blackbody at 649.71 nm, 900 nm or 1000 nm versus the display reading, output current, or output voltage.
35070S Special Tests of Radiation Thermometers (800 ºC to 2700 ºC) At Cost
35071C Radiance Temperature Standard, Radiation Thermometer (800 ºC to 2700 ºC, 6 to 20 points) 9206
35072C Radiance Temperature Standard, Radiation Thermometer (800 ºC to 2700 ºC, 5 or fewer points) 4581
Calibration reports are issued giving the thermodynamic temperature of the reference blackbody versus the radiation thermometer display reading, output current, or output voltage.
35080S Special Tests of Radiation Thermometers (-46 ºC to 900 ºC) At Cost
35085C

Radiance Temperature Standard, Radiation Thermometer (-46 ºC to 900 ºC, 3 points)

4902
35086C Radiance Temperature Standard, Radiation Thermometer (-46 ºC to 900 ºC, Each additional point when ordered with 35085C) 963/point
Calibration reports are issued giving the thermodynamic temperature of the reference blackbody versus the test blackbody source display reading.
35090S Special Tests of Blackbody Sources (-46 ºC to 900 ºC) At Cost
Calibration reports are issued giving the heat flux at the sensor surface versus the output voltage.
35100S Special Tests of Radiative Heat Flux Sensors At Cost
35101C Radiative Heat Flux Sensors (1 W/cm2 to 5 W/cm2, 9 points, Gardon and Schmidt-Boelter type sensors) 3424
35102C Additional Radiative Heat Flux Sensor (same model as 35101C) 2654


Fees are subject to change without notice.

Requests for the above calibration services are scheduled for completion within 90 days after the receipt of a purchase order and the test device.

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Standard TemperatureRange (°C) Expanded Uncertainty (°C)
Tungsten strip lamp 800 to 1500 0.4 to 0.6
varies with temperature
1500 to 1900 0.6 to 0.9
1900 to 2300 0.9 to 1.2
Leeds & Northrup
Model 8000 series
Disappearing filament
optical pyrometer
800 to 1600 4
1600 to 2100 5
1900 to 2300 7
2400 to 2700 8
2700 to 4200 17 to 25
Pyrometer Instrument
Model 95
Disappearing filament
optical pyrometer
800 to 1400 3
1400 to 1800 4
1800 to 2400 5
2400 to 2700 8
2700 to 3200 12
Infrared radiation
thermometer
15 to 70 0.1 to 0.5
70 to 170 0.1 to 0.5
400 to 700 0.5 to 3
700 to 900 2 to 5
800 to 1500 0.7 to 0.9
1500 to 1900 0.9 to 1.1
1900 to 2300  1.1 to 1.4
2300 to 2700 1.4 to 1.7

 

Standard Heat Flux (W/cm2) Relative Expanded Uncertainty (%)
Heat flux sensor 1 to 5 2

The NIST Quality System is based on the International Standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999(E) General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.

These non-contact temperature calibration services provide access to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) as realized by NIST for the temperature range from -46 °C to 4200 °C. NIST disseminates the radiance temperature scale by issuing tungsten strip lamp standards of radiance temperature and by calibrating customer supplied pyrometers, radiation thermometers, and blackbody sources.

Disappearing Filament Optical Pyrometers (35010C-35040C)

Customer supplied pyrometers are calibrated from 800 °C to 2700 °C by comparison to a high temperature blackbody. For temperatures above 2700 °C, measurements at lower temperatures are used to extrapolate the temperature measurements to 4200 °C.

Tungsten Strip Lamps (35050C-35061C)

Tungsten strip lamps are supplied by NIST as standards of radiance temperature. The lamps are calibrated at 649.71 nm from 800 °C to 2300 °C by comparison to a reference strip lamp.

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Radiation Thermometers (35070S-35086C)

Customer supplied radiation thermometers are calibrated from -46 °C to 2700 °C using various blackbodies. For the temperature range from -46 °C to 900 °C, NIST calibrates radiation thermometers with central wavelengths between 0.9 µm and 5 µm and between 8 µm to 14 µm by comparison to the blackbodies in the following table.

Blackbody Temperature Range Diameter of Cavity Aperture Emissivity
Ammonia heat-pipe -46 °C to 50 °C 5 cm 0.9993(2)
Water-bath 10 °C to 80 °C 10.8 cm 0.9997(3)
Water heat-pipe 70 °C to 250 °C 5 cm 0.99987(3)
Cesium heat-pipe 300 °C to 600 °C 5 cm 0.99987(3)
Sodium heat-pipe 600 °C to 900 °C 5 cm 0.99987(3)

For temperatures from 800 °C to 2700 °C, radiation thermometers with central wavelengths of 650 nm, 900 nm, and 1000 nm are calibrated by comparison to a high temperature blackbody. The diameter of the cavity aperture is 2.54 cm and the emissivity is 0.9985(5).

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Blackbody Sources (35090S)

Customer supplied blackbody sources are calibrated from -46 °C to 900 °C by comparison to reference blackbodies using a transfer radiation thermometer.

Radiative Heat Flux Sensors (35100S-35102C)

NIST provides calibration service for Gardon and Schmidt-Boelter type sensors as radiative heat flux standards by using a high temperature blackbody as a source of irradiance.

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References-Radiation Thermometry

Radiometric Temperature Measurements, Z.M. Zhang, B.K. Tsai, and G. Machin, eds., Academic Press, Boston, MA (2010).

Uncertainty Analysis and Maintenance of the NIST Detector-based Temperature Scale, H.W. Yoon, C.E. Gibson, G.P. Eppeldauer, A.W. Smith, S.W. Brown, and K.R. Lykke, Acta Metrologica Sinica, 29, p. No 4A (2008).

Thermodynamic Radiation Thermometry for the Next SI, H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, V. Khromchenko, G. P. Eppeldauer, R. R. Bousquet, S. W. Brown, and K. R. Lykke, Int J Thermophys 29, 285-300 (2008).

NIST Radiance Temperature and Infrared Spectral Radiance Scales at Near-ambient Temperatures, S. Mekhontsev, V. Khromchenko, and L. Hanssen, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 1026-1040 (2008).

Water Heat Pipe Blackbody as a Reference Spectral Radiance Source between 50 ºC and 250 ºC, M. Noorma, S. Mekhontsev, V. Khromchenko, M. Litorja, C. Cagran, J. Zeng, and L. Hanssen, Proc. of SPIE 6205, 620502 (2006).

The Realization and Dissemination of the Detector-based Kelvin, H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, (TEMPMEKO '04), (Cavtat-Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004) pp. 57-70

Temperature Determination of the Ag- and Au-Freezing Points Using a Detector-based Radiation Thermometer, H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, R. D. Saunders, M. Litorja, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, (TEMPMEKO '04), (Cavtat-Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004) pp. 113-118

Comparison of the NIST Radiance Temperature Scale with the Detector-based Radiance Temperature Scale from 1200 K to 2800 K, C. E. Gibson, D. W. Allen, G. P. Eppledauer, and H. W. Yoon, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, (TEMPMEKO '04), (Cavtat-Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004) pp. 127-132

NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration, B. Tsai, C. Gibson, A. Murthy, E. Early, D. Dewitt, and R. Saunders, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 250-65 (2004).

The Determination of the Emissivity of the Variable-temperature Blackbody used in the Dissemination of the US National Scale of Radiance Temperature, H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, and B. C. Johnson, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, (TEMPMEKO '01), ed. B. Fellmuth, J. Seidel, and G. Scholz (Berlin, Germany) 221-226, (2001).

Non-contact Thermometry in the Optical Technology Division at NIST, C. E. Gibson, H. W. Yoon, B. K. Tsai, B. C. Johnson, and R. D. Saunders, Thermosense XXIII, ed. A. E. Rozlosnik and R. B. Dinwiddie, Proceedings SPIE 4360, (Bellingham, Washington: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers), 333-341 (2001).

The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements, B. W. Mangum, G. T. Furukawa, K. G. Kreider, C. W. Meyer, D. C. Ripple, G. F. Strouse, L. Tew, M. R. Moldover, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, and R. D. Saunders, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106(1), 105-149 (2001).

Radiative Calibration of Heat Flux Sensors at NIST-Facilities and Techniques, A. V. Murthy, B. K. Tsai, and R. D. Saunders, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105(2), 293-305 (2000).

Comparative Calibration of Heat Flux Sensors in Two Blackbody Facilities, A. V. Murthy, B. K. Tsai, and R. D. Saunders, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 104(5), 487-494 (1999).

A Low-temperature Blackbody Reference Source to -40 ºC, C. Brian and G. Machin, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1-6 (1999).

High Heat Flux Sensor Calibration using Blackbody Radiation, A. V. Murthy, B. K. Tsai, and R. D. Saunders, Metrologia 35, 501-504 (1998).

A Comparison of ITS-90, Above the Silver Point, as Realised by NIST and NPL, G. Machin, C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, and H. W. Yoon, Proc. 7th Intl. Symp. on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, (TEMPMEKO '99), ed. J. F. Dubbeldam and M. J. de Groot (Delft, The Netherlands), 576-581 (1999).

Determination of Radiance Temperature using Detectors Calibrated for Absolute Spectral Power Response, H. W. Yoon, and C. E. Gibson, Proc. 7th Intl. Symp. on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, (TEMPMEKO '99), ed. J. F. Dubbeldam and M. J. de Groot (Delft, The Netherlands), 737-742 (1999).

NIST Measurement Services: Radiance Temperature Calibrations, C. Gibson, B. Tsia, A. Parr, NIST Spec. Publ. 250-43 (1998).

Calibration of High Heat Flux Sensors at NIST, A. V. Murthy, B. K. Tsai, and C. E. Gibson,J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102(4), 479-488 (1997).

International Comparison of Radiation Temperature Scales Among Five National Metrological Laboratories Using a Transfer Standard Radiation Thermometer, B. C. Johnson, F. Sakuma, H. Sakate, C. Gibson, G. Machin, T. Ricolfi, M. Battuello, J. Fischer, and H. J. Jung, Metrologia 33, 241 (1996).

A Third Generation Water Bath Based Blackbody Source, J. B. Fowler, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 100, 591 (1995).

Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of the NIST Measurement Results, B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, NIST Technical Note 1297 (2nd ed.,1994).

Intercomparison of the ITS-90 Radiance Temperature Scales of the National Physical Laboratory (U.K.) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, B.C. Johnson, C. Gibson, G. Machin, and R. L. Rusby, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99 (6) 731-736, (1994).

The New International Temperature Scale of 1990 and its Effect on Radiometric, Photometric, and Colorimetric Measurements and Standards, K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and J. J. Hsia, CIE Proc. 22nd Session Melbourne 1991 no. 91 (1991).

The International Temperature Scale of 1990, H. Preston-Thomas, Metrologia 27, 3-10 (1990).

The 1990 NIST Scales of Thermal Radiometry, K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and J. J. Hsia, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621 (1990).

Spectroradiometric Determination of the Freezing Temperature of Gold, K. D. Mielenz, R. D., Saunders, and J. B. Shumaker, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95 (1), 49-67 (1990).

Temperature, T. J. Quinn, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (1990).

Theory and Practice of Radiation Thermometry, D. P. Dewitt and G. D. Nutter, eds., John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY(1988).

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Program questions: Calibrations
Phone: 301-975-2200, Fax: 301-975-2950
NIST, 100 Bureau Drive , Stop 8363, Gaithersburg , MD 20899-8363